Induction of Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Humans by a Malaria DNA Vaccine

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Science  16 Oct 1998:
Vol. 282, Issue 5388, pp. 476-480
DOI: 10.1126/science.282.5388.476

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CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for protection against intracellular pathogens but often have been difficult to induce by subunit vaccines in animals. DNA vaccines elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses. Malaria-naı̈ve volunteers who were vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding a malaria protein developed antigen-specific, genetically restricted, CD8+ T cell–dependent CTLs. Responses were directed against all 10 peptides tested and were restricted by six human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. This first demonstration in healthy naı̈ve humans of the induction of CD8+ CTLs by DNA vaccines, including CTLs that were restricted by multiple HLA alleles in the same individual, provides a foundation for further human testing of this potentially revolutionary vaccine technology.

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Present address: Clinical Research, Pasteur-Merieux Connaught-USA, Swiftwater, PA 18370, USA.

  • To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: hoffmans{at}

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