Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2

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Science  07 May 1999:
Vol. 284, Issue 5416, pp. 943-945
DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5416.943

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Field experiments were conducted to test ideas for fossil fuel carbon dioxide ocean disposal as a solid hydrate at depths ranging from 349 to 3627 meters and from 8° to 1.6°C. Hydrate formed instantly from the gas phase at 349 meters but then decomposed rapidly in ambient seawater. At 3627 meters, the seawater–carbon dioxide interface rose rapidly because of massive hydrate formation, forcing spillover of the liquid carbon dioxide from the container. A strong barrier between the liquid carbon dioxide and interaction with the sediments was observed. A pool of liquid carbon dioxide on the sea floor would expand in volume more than four times, forming hydrate, which will dissolve.

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