The Glucocorticoid Receptor: Rapid Exchange with Regulatory Sites in Living Cells

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Science  18 Feb 2000:
Vol. 287, Issue 5456, pp. 1262-1265
DOI: 10.1126/science.287.5456.1262

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Steroid receptors bind to site-specific response elements in chromatin and modulate gene expression in a hormone-dependent fashion. With the use of a tandem array of mouse mammary tumor virus reporter elements and a form of glucocorticoid receptor labeled with green fluorescent protein, targeting of the receptor to response elements in live mouse cells was observed. Photobleaching experiments provide direct evidence that the hormone-occupied receptor undergoes rapid exchange between chromatin and the nucleoplasmic compartment. Thus, the interaction of regulatory proteins with target sites in chromatin is a more dynamic process than previously believed.

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: hagerg{at}

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