Deposition of Conformal Copper and Nickel Films from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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Science  05 Oct 2001:
Vol. 294, Issue 5540, pp. 141-145
DOI: 10.1126/science.1064148

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Device-quality copper and nickel films were deposited onto planar and etched silicon substrates by the reduction of soluble organometallic compounds with hydrogen in a supercritical carbon dioxide solution. Exceptional step coverage on complex surfaces and complete filling of high-aspect-ratio features of less than 100 nanometers width were achieved. Nickel was deposited at 60°C by the reduction of bis(cyclopentadienyl)nickel and copper was deposited from either copper(I) or copper(II) compounds onto the native oxide of silicon or metal nitrides with seed layers at temperatures up to 200°C and directly on each surface at temperatures above 250°C. The latter approach provides a single-step means for achieving high-aspect-ratio feature fill necessary for copper interconnect structures in future generations of integrated circuits.

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