The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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Science  04 Oct 2002:
Vol. 298, Issue 5591, pp. 129-149
DOI: 10.1126/science.1076181

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Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year. Tenfold shotgun sequence coverage was obtained from the PEST strain of A. gambiae and assembled into scaffolds that span 278 million base pairs. A total of 91% of the genome was organized in 303 scaffolds; the largest scaffold was 23.1 million base pairs. There was substantial genetic variation within this strain, and the apparent existence of two haplotypes of approximately equal frequency (“dual haplotypes”) in a substantial fraction of the genome likely reflects the outbred nature of the PEST strain. The sequence produced a conservative inference of more than 400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed a markedly bimodal density distribution. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed strong evidence for about 14,000 protein-encoding transcripts. Prominent expansions in specific families of proteins likely involved in cell adhesion and immunity were noted. An expressed sequence tag analysis of genes regulated by blood feeding provided insights into the physiological adaptations of a hematophagous insect.

  • * Present address: Canada's Michael Smith Genome Science Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Room 3427, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6, Canada.

  • Present address: Agencourt Bioscience Corporation, 100 Cummings Center, Suite 107J, Beverly, MA 01915, USA.

  • § Present address: Department of Pharmacology, Sun Yat-Sen Medical School, Sun Yat-Sen University #74, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou (Canton), 510089, P. R. China.

  • || Present address: Sanaria, 308 Argosy Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA.

  • To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: robert.holt{at}celera.com, rholt{at}bcgsc.ca (R.A.H.), frank.h.collins.75{at}nd.edu (F.H.C.).

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