Review

The Phanerozoic Record of Global Sea-Level Change

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Science  25 Nov 2005:
Vol. 310, Issue 5752, pp. 1293-1298
DOI: 10.1126/science.1116412

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  1. Fig. 1.

    Timing and amplitudes of geologic mechanisms of eustatic change derived from (14). SF, sea floor; Cont, continental.

  2. Fig. 2.

    Comparison of Phanerozoic backstripped eustatic estimates of this study, Watts (14), Sahagian (35), Kominz (29), Levy (30), and Bond (18); EPR records of Vail (10) and Haq (11, 16); continental flooding records of Sloss (15) and Ronov (17) plotted versus area, and Bond (18), Harrison (19), and Sahagian (4) plotted versus sea level; and evolutionary records compiled by Katz (52).

  3. Fig. 3.

    Global sea level (light blue) for the interval 7 to 100 Ma derived by backstripping data (21). Global sea level (purple) for the interval 0 to 7 Ma derived from δ18O, shown in detail on Fig. 4. Shown for comparison is a benthic foraminiferal δ18O synthesis from 0 to 100 Ma (red), with the scale on the bottom axis in ‰ [reported to Cibicidoides values (0.64‰ lower than equilibrium)]. The portion of the δ18O curve from 0 to 65 Ma is derived using data from Miller (44) and fig. S1 recalibrated to the time scale of (71). The δ18O curve from 65 to 100 Ma is based on the data compiled by Miller (36) calibrated to the time scale of (72). Data from 7 to 100 Ma were interpolated to a constant 0.1-My interval and smoothed with a 21-point Gaussian convolution filter using Igor Pro. Pink box at ∼11 Ma is sea-level estimate derived from the Marion Plateau (51). Heavy black line is the long-term fit to our backstripped curve (23). Light green boxes indicate times of spreading rate increases on various ocean ridges (57). Dark green box indicates the opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and concomitant extrusion of the Brito-Arctic basalts.

  4. Fig. 4.

    Oxygen isotopic-based sea-level estimate for the past 9 My. Isotopic values are reported to equilibrium, with coretop and last glacial maximum values indicated with arrows and thin vertical green lines. Thin black line is raw data plotted versus the δ18O scale (bottom). The purple line is the sea-level estimate (top scale), which is derived by correcting the δ18O data by 0.5‰ due to a ∼2°C cooling between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma (red line), scaling by δ18O to sea level using a calibration of 0.1‰/10 m, and scaling the result by 0.8 (45).

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