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Thrice Out of Africa: Ancient and Recent Expansions of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

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Science  27 Oct 2006:
Vol. 314, Issue 5799, pp. 642-645
DOI: 10.1126/science.1132772

Article Information

vol. 314 no. 5799 642-645

PubMed: 
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History: 
  • Received for publication July 20, 2006
  • Accepted for publication October 5, 2006
  • .

Author Information

  1. Charles W. Whitfield1,2,3,*,
  2. Susanta K. Behura1,
  3. Stewart H. Berlocher1,3,
  4. Andrew G. Clark4,
  5. J. Spencer Johnston5,
  6. Walter S. Sheppard6,7,
  7. Deborah R. Smith8,
  8. Andrew V. Suarez1,3,9,
  9. Daniel Weaver10,
  10. Neil D. Tsutsui11,12
  1. 1 Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 505 South Goodwin Avenue, IL 61801, USA.
  2. 2 Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA.
  3. 3 Program for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA.
  4. 4 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
  5. 5 Department of Entomology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
  6. 6 Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  7. 7 Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  8. 8 Entomology program, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.
  9. 9 Department of Animal Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA.
  10. 10 Bee Power, LP, and Bee Weaver Apiaries, Inc., Navasota, TX 77868, USA.
  11. 11 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
  12. 12 Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
  1. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: charlie{at}life.uiuc.edu

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