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Science  31 Aug 2007:
Vol. 317, Issue 5842, pp. 1184-1187
DOI: 10.1126/science.317.5842.1184


Sir David King Urges Global Pact by 2009 to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

Sir David King at AAAS

Wealthy and developing nations should join to approve a global pact by 2009 to sharply reduce greenhouse gas emissions and avoid “catastrophic” climate change, Sir David King, the U.K.'s chief scientific adviser, said in a lecture at AAAS on 13 July.

Speaking to an overflow audience, King said that the Earth is already feeling destructive effects of human-caused climate change. But if a rigorous new agreement could be approved in 2 years and implemented by 2012, he said, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases could be stabilized between 450 and 550 parts per million.

“The impacts at 450 ppm will be 'dangerous,'” King said. But if levels were to approach 550 ppm and beyond, possible on current trends by mid-century, impacts which would become progressively more severe at higher levels include: reduced crop yields in many areas; reduced supplies of fresh water; storms, droughts, and forest fires of increasing intensity; species extinction; lethal heat waves; and coastal flooding that could create tens of millions of refugees.

“We must get global agreement,” he said, “and I'm standing here in Washington [D.C.] saying: 'We need it in a very short period of time.'”

King was appointed the U.K.'s chief scientific adviser in October 2000, and serves also as director of the Surface Science Research Group at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry. He addressed the AAAS Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington, in 2004, and spoke at AAAS headquarters in 2005.

Atmospheric CO2 levels alone are now at over 380 ppm and expected to reach 400 ppm within a decade. If total greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions peak in 2020, levels likely can be held below 550 ppm CO2 equivalent, King said in his 13 July talk.

“We need a two-track strategy,” he explained. “We must reduce emissions radically to stabilize GHGs in our atmosphere. But we also cannot avoid climate changes that are already in the system from historic emissions. We must therefore, at the same time, adapt to these impacts we cannot avoid, and we have to do so country by country.”

The European Union agreed in 2007 to cut GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to 1990 levels, and by 30% if part of a wider international agreement. To provide leadership, a draft Climate Change Bill, set forth on 13 March, requires the United Kingdom to reduce CO2 emissions by 26 to 32% by 2020 and by at least 60% by 2050 over 1990 levels.

The United Kingdom's policies to reduce GHG emissions include a requirement for electricity suppliers to produce a growing percentage of power from renewable sources. In addition, measures are in place to promote energy efficiency and support development of new technologies, including the establishment of the Energy Technologies Institute, a public-private partnership of the U.K. government and industry.

Noting that fossil fuels will play a continuing role, King called carbon capture and storage “key to it all.” A cap-and-trade system also will be essential to controlling emissions, he explained. In simple terms, a cap-and-trade scheme imposes strict limits on emissions from a group of industries, then grants permits for emissions; a market is created in which the permits can be sold by those who emit less and bought by those who emit more. Over time, the number of permits is reduced.

Such a system is already operating in the European Union. In the United States, eight bills pending in Congress would follow suit.

Does any such measure have a chance in the current U.S. political climate? “As I go through Washington [D.C.], I hear a willingness to listen to lessons we've learned” in the United Kingdom, said King. Later, he added: “As we move forward to early next year, I'm very much hoping to see a clear leadership position from the United States” on the climate issue.

Indeed, King expressed guarded optimism about future prospects. Leaders in oil, energy, finance, and insurance are joining the effort to mitigate global change. The emissions-reduction effort may, in time, stimulate the world economy, he said. With technological advances, improved solar power could meet all of our energy needs.

And, he said, a new global emissions pact could be on the horizon, with the United Kingdom, the United States, and other members of the G8 group of industrialized nations agreeing at their June summit on the urgent need to cut emissions. Agreements between this group and key developing nations such as China and India would be key to support the formal United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations, he said.

“We've got a lot to play for,” King concluded, “and I think we can do it.”

See a video of Sir David King's lecture at

—Ginger Pinholster contributed to this report.


Georgia Teacher Wins New AAAS Education Prize

Chris Kennedy

Chris Kennedy's class started with some colored pencils and a list—54 elements followed by bewildering strings of subscript and numbers. By the time they had finished the unique periodic table lab, the students were debating the strange electron configuration of copper in the hallway after class. The successful lesson is emblematic of the thought-provoking teaching that made Kennedy the first winner of AAAS's Leadership in Science Education Prize for High School Teachers.

The lab was an “old favorite” that Kennedy, a veteran chemistry teacher at Hiram High School in Hiram, Georgia, reworked to meet new state standards for high school science courses, which are based in part on AAAS's Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy.

“Many of our students are used to doing concrete activities in school, so this was a little more challenging,” Kennedy said. “This is one of the first times they've had to deal with abstract concepts, since we're talking about these atoms and molecules that they can't see.”

“I actually like science now that I've had his class, “said Marissa Matthews, a Hiram senior who took chemistry with Kennedy last year. “It made it easier to learn because you're actually doing stuff. You're doing it yourself.”

The annual prize of $1000, supported by a AAAS donor, recognizes a high school teacher who has developed an innovative and effective classroom strategy, activity, or program that contributes to the AAAS goal of advancing science education.

Kennedy said the prize was “a bit of a shock, and humbling too, to think of the number of people out there teaching and doing absolutely wonderful things in their classrooms.”

“Given the enormous challenges facing science educators today, it is especially gratifying to know that AAAS is now able to recognize the efforts of talented individuals like Mr. Kennedy with this new prize,” said Jo Ellen Roseman, director of Project 2061, AAAS's science literacy initiative.

The electron configuration lab is one of Kennedy's inquiry-based lessons that encourage students to solve problems and come up with their own questions as they explore a scientific topic. Kennedy first encountered the approach as a mid-career teacher, “but there's not a lot of stuff out there for high school chemistry, not like a recipe book out there to do more inquiry in my classroom.” Despite this, he forged ahead, and now spends part of each year training science teachers in inquiry-based learning.

In her letter nominating Kennedy, Paulding County Schools science coordinator Dawn Hudson praised Kennedy's work with other teachers. “He has burned copies of discs with his labs, lesson and unit plans, and other teaching tips—one per chemistry teacher in our district,” she said. Many teachers in the district are trying his techniques “because they see the impact in Chris's classroom as a result,” Hudson added.

One of the biggest challenges in teaching high school students “is sometimes convincing them that they can do the science, and that they're going to make it through the science. My department chair calls it the 'buy-in,'” Kennedy quipped.

Last year, Kennedy made the sale. For the first time in 12 years, none of his 95 students missed the four questions related to electron configurations on their semester exam.

For more information on the AAAS Leadership in Science Education Prize for High School Teachers, see

—Becky Ham


Congress Advances Funds for Earth Observation

Four months after AAAS joined a call to preserve U.S. funding for Earth observation satellites, the U.S. House of Representatives in July restored funds to a satellite network seen as essential to weather forecasting and climate change research.

The House appropriations bill specifically increases funding for Earth-observing satellites and Earth sciences research in the FY 2008 budgets of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For instance, the bill includes a $60 million increase in the NASA budget for several new satellite missions recommended in a 2007 study by the National Research Council (NRC), Earth Science and Applications from Space.

In a statement issued in April, the AAAS Board of Directors warned that budget cuts and shifts in research priorities at NASA and NOAA could lead to “major gaps in the continuity and quality of the data gathered about the Earth from space.” The board praised the NRC's report as a blueprint for restoring the satellite program.

At an 11 July hearing before the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, Senator Bill Nelson (D—FL) said AAAS and others had “raised concerns about the loss of climate data and climate monitoring capabilities” as the current satellite fleet ages and is replaced by less capable models. The Senate will take up an appropriations bill similar to the House measure when Congress convenes in September.

The final budget for the satellites will depend on President George W. Bush, who has threatened to veto any appropriations that surpass his own budget request. As of mid-August, Congress had already pushed its own domestic spending plan $21 billion past the president's limit, according to a new report by AAAS's R&D Budget and Policy Program.

For more R&D budget analysis, see

—Becky Ham


Report Offers Support for Inter-American Institute

The Inter-American Institute for Global Change has produced “high-quality science” and helped build research capacity in Latin America, and its impact could be amplified if it improves communication with policy-makers, says a new review organized by AAAS.

Founded in 1992, the Inter-American Institute (IAI) focuses on the Americas and the Caribbean, a region of extraordinary biological diversity and climate variations that is beset by growing population and serious environmental problems.

The review, commissioned by the U.S. National Science Foundation, was delivered in Manaus, Brazil, in June to IAI officials representing the 19 member nations. It found that aspects of the institute's scientific work “have been internationally recognized and supported,” and that IAI short-courses, workshops, and apprenticeships are vital contributions to research capacity in the Americas.

The reviewers also offered some guidance for the institute's future evolution: More research should analyze “the reciprocal links between human activities and environmental change.” Stronger communication and outreach would help position IAI “as the broker of two-way dialogue between the science and decision-making communities throughout the region.” And it could bolster its finances by seeking support from industry, nongovernmental groups, and other sources.

IAI Director Holm Tiessen, who joined the institute 2 years ago, said in an interview that the report offers “in a productive and in a forward-looking way some solutions to some perennial problems.” Officials involved in the review praised Tiessen for moving proactively to strengthen the institute.

“There is little doubt that the IAI is as important today as it was when the governments of the Americas first created it,” said Vaughan Turekian, AAAS's chief international officer. “As we look toward the future need to take further steps to promote sustainable development and well-being in the hemisphere, the IAI will take on an even more important role in informing government action.”


AAAS Annual Election: Preliminary Announcement

The 2007 AAAS election of general and section officers will be held in October and November. All members will receive a ballot for election of the president-elect, members of the Board of Directors, and members of the Committee on Nominations. Members registered in one to three sections will receive ballots for election of the chair-elect, member-at-large of the Section Committee, and members of the Electorate Nominating Committee for each section.

Members enrolled in the following sections will also elect Council delegates: Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences; Dentistry and Oral Health Sciences; Education; General Interest in Science and Engineering; Information, Computing, and Communication; Linguistics and Language Science; Pharmaceutical Sciences; Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering; and Statistics.

Candidates for all offices are listed below. Additional names may be placed in nomination for any office by petition submitted to the Chief Executive Officer no later than October 8. Petitions nominating candidates for president-elect, members of the Board, or members of the Committee on Nominations must bear the signatures of at least 100 members of the Association. Petitions nominating candidates for any section office must bear the signatures of at least 50 members of the section. A petition to place an additional name in nomination for any office must be accompanied by the nominee's curriculum vitae and statement of acceptance of nomination.

Biographical information for the following candidates will be enclosed with the ballots mailed to members in October.

Slate of Candidates

General Election

President-Elect: Peter C. Agre, Duke Univ. School of Medicine; Peter J. Stang, Univ. of Utah

Board of Directors: Nancy Knowlton, Smithsonian Inst., National Museum of Natural History; W. Carl Lineberger, Univ. of Colorado/JILA; Thomas A. Woolsey, Washington Univ. School of Medicine; Wm. A. Wulf, Univ. of Virginia

Committee on Nominations: Richard C. Atkinson, Univ. of California, San Diego; Jerome I. Friedman, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology; Diana Hicks, Georgia Inst. of Technology; Karen A. Holbrook, President Emerita, Ohio State Univ.; Barry J. Huebert, Univ. of Hawaii; Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden; Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Cytonome, Inc.; Robert H. Waterston, Univ. of Washington

Section Elections

Agriculture, Food, and Renewable Resources

Chair Elect: Daniel R. Bush, Colorado State Univ.; Neal Van Alfen, Univ. California, Davis

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Sally Mackenzie, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln; Deon D. Stuthman, Univ. of Minnesota

Electorate Nominating Committee: Pamela J. Green, Univ. of Delaware; Nancy P. Keller, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; Thomas Jack Morris, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln; Charles W. Rice, Kansas State Univ.


Chair Elect: Michael A. Little, Binghamton Univ.; Margaret J. Schoeninger, Univ. of California-San Diego

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Clifford J. Jolly, New York Univ.; Dennis H. O'Rourke, Univ. of Utah

Electorate Nominating Committee: Terry Harrison, New York Univ.; William R. Leonard, Northwestern Univ.; Karen R. Rosenberg, Univ. of Delaware; Lisa Sattenspiel, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia


Chair Elect: Steven V. W. Beckwith, Johns Hopkins Univ./Space Telescope Science Institute; Mario Livio, Space Telescope Science Institute

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Lori E. Allen, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Nancy D. Morrison, Univ. of Toledo

Electorate Nominating Committee: Lynn R. Cominsky, Sonoma State Univ.; Margaret Meixner, Space Telescope Science Institute; Tammy Smecker-Hane, Univ. of California, Irvine; William S. Smith Jr., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy

Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences

Chair Elect: Kenneth H. Brink, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.; Margaret Leinen, Climos, Inc.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Heidi Cullen, The Weather Channel; Eugenia Kalnay, Univ. of Maryland

Electorate Nominating Committee: David M. Glover, Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.; Jean Lynch-Stieglitz, Georgia Inst. of Technology; Syukuro Manabe, Princeton Univ.; Terry Whitledge, Univ. of Alaska

Council Delegate: Wanda R. Ferrell, U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility; Claire L. Parkinson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Biological Sciences

Chair Elect: Barbara L. Illman, Institute for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, U.S. Forest Service; James A. Spudich, Stanford Univ.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Marnie E. Halpern, Carnegie Institution of Washington; Diana G. Myles, Univ. of California, Davis

Electorate Nominating Committee: Charles A. Ettensohn, Carnegie Mellon Univ.; David R. McClay, Duke Univ.; Michael W. Nachman, Univ. of Arizona; Baldomero “Toto” Olivera, Univ. of Utah


Chair Elect: Madeleine Jacobs, American Chemical Society; Geraldine Richmond, Univ. of Oregon

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Peter B. Armentrout, Univ. of Utah; Carol A. Fierke, Univ. of Michigan

Electorate Nominating Committee: Alison Butler, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara; David Eisenberg, Univ. of California, Los Angeles; Mark A. Ratner, Northwestern Univ.; Edward I. Solomon, Stanford Univ.

Dentistry and Oral Health Sciences

Chair Elect: David S. Carlson, Texas A&M Health Science Center; Huw F. Thomas, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Susan W. Herring, Univ. of Washington; Dennis F. Mangan, Univ. of Southern California

Electorate Nominating Committee: Mark W. Lingen, Univ. of Chicago; Frank C. Nichols, Univ. of Connecticut; Janet Moradian-Oldak, Univ. of Southern California; Hans-Peter Weber, Harvard School of Dental Medicine

Council Delegate: Jacques E. Nör, Univ. of Michigan; Susan Reisine, Univ. of Connecticut


Chair Elect: Judith A. Dilts, James Madison Univ.; Eric J. Jolly, Science Museum of Minnesota

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Elizabeth S. Boylan, Barnard Coll.; Robert Tinker, The Concord Consortium

Electorate Nominating Committee: Judy Diamond, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln; Adam P. Fagen, Board on Life Sciences, National Research Council; Kenji Hakuta, Stanford Univ.; Susan H. Hixson, National Science Foundation

Council Delegate: Rodger W. Bybee, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study; Alan J. Friedman, consultant, New York, NY


Chair Elect: Kenneth F. Galloway, Vanderbilt Univ.; Robert M. Nerem, Georgia Inst. of Technology

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Cristina H. Amon, Univ. of Toronto; Kenneth R. Diller, Univ. of Texas

Electorate Nominating Committee: Kristi S. Anseth, Univ. of Colorado; Cindy Atman, Univ. of Washington; Chris T. Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon Univ.; John W. Rudnicki, Northwestern Univ.

General Interest in Science and Engineering

Chair Elect: Jonathan Coopersmith, Texas A&M Univ.; Charles N. Haas, Drexel Univ.; Susanna Hornig Priest, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Larry Bell, Museum of Science, Boston; Erika C. Shugart, Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences

Electorate Nominating Committee: Jarvis L. Moyers, National Science Foundation; Joann Ellison Rodgers, Johns Hopkins Medicine; John L. Safko, Sr., Univ. of South Carolina; Bill Valdez, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science

Council Delegate: Marilee Long, Colorado State Univ.; Julie Ann Miller, D.C. Science Writers Assoc.

Geology and Geography

Chair Elect: W. Berry Lyons, Ohio State Univ.; Susan Trumbore, Univ. of California, Irvine

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Jill S. Baron, U.S. Geological Survey/Colorado State Univ.; John C. Mutter, Columbia Univ.

Electorate Nominating Committee: Sheryl Luzzadder Beach, George Mason Univ.; Mary Lynne Bird, American Geographical Society; Kam-biu Liu, Louisiana State Univ.; Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Ohio State Univ.

History and Philosophy of Science

Chair Elect: William Bechtel, Univ. of California, San Diego; Alan J. Rocke, Case Western Reserve Univ.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Paul Lawrence Farber, Oregon State Univ.; Silvan Sam Schweber, Brandeis Univ.

Electorate Nominating Committee: James R. Bartholomew, Ohio State Univ.; Rachelle D. Hollander, National Academy of Engineering/Univ. of Maryland; Brian Skyrms, Univ. of California, Irvine; Phillip R. Sloan, Univ. of Notre Dame

Industrial Science and Technology

Chair Elect: Laura A. Philips, independent consultant, New York, NY; S. Tom Picraux, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Ray H. Baughman, Univ. of Texas at Dallas; Proctor Reid, National Academy of Engineering

Electorate Nominating Committee: Ilan Ben-Zvi, Brookhaven Natl. Lab.; Anthony Fainberg, Institute for Defense Analyses; Tingye Li, independent consultant, Boulder, CO; Robert W. Sprague, Rancho Palos Verdes, CA

Information, Computing, and Communication

Chair Elect: Bonnie C. Carroll, Information International Associates, Inc.; Edward D. Lazowska, Univ. of Washington

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Julia Gelfand, Univ. of California, Irvine; Benjamin Kuipers, Univ. of Texas at Austin

Electorate Nominating Committee: William Richards (Rick) Adrion, Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst; James D. Foley, Georgia Inst. of Technology; Clifford A. Lynch, Coalition for Networked Information; Eugene H. Spafford, Purdue Univ.

Council Delegate: Lewis M. Branscomb, Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Maureen C. Kelly, consultant, Haddonfield, NJ

Linguistics and Language Science

Chair Elect: Mark Liberman, Univ. of Pennsylvania; Annie Zaenen, Palo Alto Research Center

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Mark Aronoff, Stony Brook Univ.; Don Ringe, Univ. of Pennsylvania

Electorate Nominating Committee: Joan Maling, National Science Foundation; Sally McConnell-Ginet, Cornell Univ.; James Pustejovsky, Brandeis Univ.; Edward Stabler, Univ. of California, Los Angeles

Council Delegate: Stephen R. Anderson, Yale Univ.; Keren Rice, Univ. of Toronto


Chair Elect: Keith Devlin, Stanford Univ.; Martin Golubitsky, Univ. of Houston

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Alexander Nagel, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; Warren Page, City Univ. of New York

Electorate Nominating Committee: Harold P. Boas, Texas A&M Univ.; Maria-Carme Calderer, Univ. of Minnesota; Deborah F. Lockhart, National Science Foundation; Avy Soffer, Rutgers Univ.

Medical Sciences

Chair Elect: Christine A. Biron, Brown Univ.; Donald S. Burke, Univ. of Pittsburgh

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee:Jay A. Levy, Univ. of California San Francisco School of Medicine; Arlene H. Sharpe, Harvard Medical School

Electorate Nominating Committee: Harry B. Greenberg, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine; Margaret K. Hostetter, Yale School of Medicine; Thea D. Tlsty, Univ. of California San Francisco School of Medicine; Marsha Wills-Karp, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Univ. of Cincinnati


Chair Elect: Mahlon R. DeLong, Emory Univ.; J. Anthony Movshon, New York Univ.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Hollis T. Cline, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; Cheryl L. Sisk, Michigan State Univ.

Electorate Nominating Committee: Rosemarie Booze, Univ. of South Carolina; Eliot Brenowitz, Univ. of Washington; John F. Disterhoft, Northwestern Univ.; Charles D. Gilbert, Rockefeller Univ.

Pharmaceutical Science

Chair Elect: William E. Evans, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Kenneth Thummel, Univ. of Washington

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: C. Anthony Hunt, Univ. of California, San Francisco; Dhiren Thakker, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Electorate Nominating Committee: F. Douglas Boudinot, Virginia Commonwealth Univ.; Günter Hochhaus, Univ. of Florida; Uday B. Kompella, Univ. of Nebraska; Wei-Chiang Shen, Univ. of Southern California

Council Delegate: Jim Gallo, Temple Univ.; Patrick J. Sinko, Rutgers Univ.


Chair Elect: Bill R. Appleton, Univ. of Florida; Alan Chodos, American Physical Society

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: C. Lewis Cocke, Kansas State Univ.; Gene D. Sprouse, American Physical Society

Electorate Nominating Committee: Orlando Auciello, Argonne National Laboratory; Richard L. Cohen, independent consultant, Novato, CA; Robert P. Redwine, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology; Antoinette (Toni) Taylor, Los Alamos National Laboratory


Chair Elect: Jane Stewart, Concordia Univ.; Edward Taub, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Susan Goldin-Meadow, Univ. of Chicago; Elissa L. Newport, Univ. of Rochester

Electorate Nominating Committee: Jeffrey R. Alberts, Indiana Univ.; John P. Capitanio, Univ. of California, Davis; Merrill F. Garrett, Univ. of Arizona; Jeri S. Janowsky, Oregon Health & Science Univ.

Social, Economic, and Political Sciences

Chair Elect: Craig Calhoun, Social Science Research Council/New York Univ.; Karen S. Cook, Stanford Univ.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Robert Jervis, Columbia Univ.; Judith M. Tanur, SUNY Stony Brook

Electorate Nominating Committee: Henry E. Brady, Univ. of California, Berkeley; Nancy M. Gordon, U.S. Census Bureau; Felice J. Levine, American Educational Research Association; Joyce Lewinger Moock, independent advisor, Larchmont, NY

Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering

Chair Elect: Dan Kammen, Univ. of California, Berkeley; Caroline S. Wagner, George Washington Univ.

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: Kerri-Ann Jones, independent consultant, Castine, ME; M. Granger Morgan, Carnegie Mellon Univ.

Electorate Nominating Committee: Peter D. Blair, National Research Council; Thomas Dietz, Michigan State Univ.; Michele Garfinkel, J. Craig Venter Inst.; David M. Hart, George Mason Univ.; Charlotte Kuh, National Academies; William A. Stiles Jr., consultant, Norfolk, VA

Council Delegate: Robert Cook-Deegan, Duke Univ.; Frank N. Laird, Univ. of Denver


Chair Elect: David J. Marchette, Naval Surface Warfare Center; W. Michael O'Fallon, Mayo School of Medicine

Member-at-Large of the Section Committee: G. Jogesh Babu, Pennsylvania State Univ.; Randall K. Spoeri, Cerner Corporation

Electorate Nominating Committee: Joseph L. Gastwirth, George Washington Univ.; Yasmin H. Said, George Mason Univ.; Fritz Scheuren, NORC at Univ. of Chicago; David W. Scott, Rice Univ.

Council Delegate: David L. DeMets, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; Jonas H. Ellenberg, Univ. of Pennsylvania

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