Deep-Sea Oil Plume Enriches Indigenous Oil-Degrading Bacteria

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Science  08 Oct 2010:
Vol. 330, Issue 6001, pp. 204-208
DOI: 10.1126/science.1195979
  • Fig. 1

    Characteristic depth profiles of cell density, fluorescence, and dissolved oxygen for distances from the source (BM53, BM57, and BM58) and one nonplume site (BM61). Diamonds indicate cell density.

  • Fig. 2

    Microbial community analysis of deep-water plume and nonplume samples. Differences in composition of (A) 16S rRNA gene sequences measured by PhyloChip and (B) phospholipid fatty acids were analyzed with nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of Bray-Curtis distances (stress = 3.98 and 4.55, respectively). Plume and nonplume communities were significantly different as determined by permutational analysis of variance (P = 0.005 for both) and delineated with lines for clarity.

  • Fig. 3

    SR-FTIR images (~60 μm by 60 μm) showing the distribution of microorganisms, oil, and oil degradation products in a “floc.” Distribution heat map of the protein amide II vibration modes at ~1542 cm−1 and the carbohydrates vibration modes at ~1000 cm−1 (20). Distribution heat map of alkane C-H vibration modes in oil from MC252. Distribution heat map of carbonyl (C=O) vibration modes at ~1730 cm−1 in oil oxidation products, of nitrogen oxides vibration modes at ~1610 cm−1 in nitration products, and of sulfur oxides vibration modes at ~1150 cm−1 in sulfation products. Scale bars: 10 μm. Reflectance is given in percentage units.

  • Fig. 4

    (A) Dominant bacteria at 1099 to 1219 m (scanning electron micrograph) and acridine orange stain (inset) with distance from source. (B) Neighbor-joining tree showing the phylogenetic relationships of the dominant bacterium in deep-sea plume samples. Relative abundance of the dominant bacterium was 90 to 95% of plume samples and 5% of the nonplume sample (shown in parentheses). Psychrophilic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, as well as uncultured organisms from low-temperature, hydrocarbon-dominated environments, are shown in blue. Organisms shown in red are either known hydrocarbon degraders or are from hydrocarbon-dominated ecosystems but are not from low-temperature environments. Bootstrap values based on 1000 replicates of ≥50% are shown at branch points. Aquifex pyrophilus (GenBank accession M83548) was used as the outgroup.

Additional Files

  • Deep-Sea Oil Plume Enriches Indigenous Oil-Degrading Bacteria
    Terry C. Hazen, Eric A. Dubinsky, Todd Z. DeSantis, Gary L. Andersen, Yvette M. Piceno, Navjeet Singh, Janet K. Jansson, Alexander Probst, Sharon E. Borglin, Julian L. Fortney, William T. Stringfellow, Markus Bill, Mark S. Conrad, Lauren M. Tom, Krystle L. Chavarria, Thana R. Alusi, Regina Lamendella, Dominique C. Joyner, Chelsea Spier Jacob Baelum, Manfred Auer, Marcin L. Zemla, Romy Chakraborty, Eric L. Sonnenthal, Patrik D'haeseleer, Hoi-Ying N. Holman, Shariff Osman, Zhenmei Lu, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Ye Deng, Jizhong Zhou, Olivia U. Mason

    Supporting Online Material

    This supplement contains:
    Figs. S1 to S18
    Tables S1 to S8

    This file is in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.

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