Research Article

The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates

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Science  10 Dec 2010:
Vol. 330, Issue 6010, pp. 1503-1509
DOI: 10.1126/science.1194442

Article Information

vol. 330 no. 6010 1503-1509

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History: 
  • Received for publication June 29, 2010
  • Accepted for publication October 11, 2010
  • .

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Author Information

  1. Michael Hoffmann1,2,*,
  2. Craig Hilton-Taylor3,
  3. Ariadne Angulo4,5,
  4. Monika Böhm6,
  5. Thomas M. Brooks7,8,9,
  6. Stuart H. M. Butchart10,
  7. Kent E. Carpenter2,5,11,
  8. Janice Chanson5,12,
  9. Ben Collen6,
  10. Neil A. Cox5,13,
  11. William R. T. Darwall3,
  12. Nicholas K. Dulvy14,
  13. Lucy R. Harrison14,
  14. Vineet Katariya3,
  15. Caroline M. Pollock3,
  16. Suhel Quader15,
  17. Nadia I. Richman6,
  18. Ana S. L. Rodrigues16,
  19. Marcelo F. Tognelli5,13,17,
  20. Jean-Christophe Vié5,
  21. John M. Aguiar18,
  22. David J. Allen3,
  23. Gerald R. Allen19,
  24. Giovanni Amori20,
  25. Natalia B. Ananjeva21,
  26. Franco Andreone22,
  27. Paul Andrew23,
  28. Aida Luz Aquino Ortiz24,
  29. Jonathan E. M. Baillie25,
  30. Ricardo Baldi26,27,
  31. Ben D. Bell28,
  32. S. D. Biju29,
  33. Jeremy P. Bird30,
  34. Patricia Black-Decima31,
  35. J. Julian Blanc32,
  36. Federico Bolaños33,
  37. Wilmar Bolivar-G.34,
  38. Ian J. Burfield10,
  39. James A. Burton35,36,
  40. David R. Capper37,
  41. Fernando Castro38,
  42. Gianluca Catullo39,
  43. Rachel D. Cavanagh40,
  44. Alan Channing41,
  45. Ning Labbish Chao42,43,44,
  46. Anna M. Chenery45,
  47. Federica Chiozza46,
  48. Viola Clausnitzer47,
  49. Nigel J. Collar10,
  50. Leah C. Collett3,
  51. Bruce B. Collette48,
  52. Claudia F. Cortez Fernandez49,
  53. Matthew T. Craig50,
  54. Michael J. Crosby10,
  55. Neil Cumberlidge51,
  56. Annabelle Cuttelod3,
  57. Andrew E. Derocher52,
  58. Arvin C. Diesmos53,
  59. John S. Donaldson54,
  60. J. W. Duckworth55,
  61. Guy Dutson56,
  62. S. K. Dutta57,
  63. Richard H. Emslie58,
  64. Aljos Farjon59,
  65. Sarah Fowler60,
  66. Jörg Freyhof61,
  67. David L. Garshelis62,
  68. Justin Gerlach63,
  69. David J. Gower64,
  70. Tandora D. Grant65,
  71. Geoffrey A. Hammerson66,
  72. Richard B. Harris67,
  73. Lawrence R. Heaney68,
  74. S. Blair Hedges69,
  75. Jean-Marc Hero70,
  76. Baz Hughes71,
  77. Syed Ainul Hussain72,
  78. Javier Icochea M.73,
  79. Robert F. Inger68,
  80. Nobuo Ishii74,
  81. Djoko T. Iskandar75,
  82. Richard K. B. Jenkins76,77,78,
  83. Yoshio Kaneko79,
  84. Maurice Kottelat80,81,
  85. Kit M. Kovacs82,
  86. Sergius L. Kuzmin83,
  87. Enrique La Marca84,
  88. John F. Lamoreux5,85,
  89. Michael W. N. Lau86,
  90. Esteban O. Lavilla87,
  91. Kristin Leus88,
  92. Rebecca L. Lewison89,
  93. Gabriela Lichtenstein90,
  94. Suzanne R. Livingstone91,
  95. Vimoksalehi Lukoschek92,93,
  96. David P. Mallon94,
  97. Philip J. K. McGowan95,
  98. Anna McIvor96,
  99. Patricia D. Moehlman97,
  100. Sanjay Molur98,
  101. Antonio Muñoz Alonso99,
  102. John A. Musick100,
  103. Kristin Nowell101,
  104. Ronald A. Nussbaum102,
  105. Wanda Olech103,
  106. Nikolay L. Orlov21,
  107. Theodore J. Papenfuss104,
  108. Gabriela Parra-Olea105,
  109. William F. Perrin106,
  110. Beth A. Polidoro5,11,
  111. Mohammad Pourkazemi107,
  112. Paul A. Racey108,
  113. James S. Ragle5,
  114. Mala Ram6,
  115. Galen Rathbun109,
  116. Robert P. Reynolds110,
  117. Anders G. J. Rhodin111,
  118. Stephen J. Richards112,113,
  119. Lily O. Rodríguez114,
  120. Santiago R. Ron115,
  121. Carlo Rondinini46,
  122. Anthony B. Rylands2,
  123. Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson116,117,
  124. Jonnell C. Sanciangco5,11,
  125. Kate L. Sanders118,
  126. Georgina Santos-Barrera119,
  127. Jan Schipper120,
  128. Caryn Self-Sullivan121,122,
  129. Yichuan Shi3,
  130. Alan Shoemaker123,
  131. Frederick T. Short124,
  132. Claudio Sillero-Zubiri125,
  133. Débora L. Silvano126,
  134. Kevin G. Smith3,
  135. Andrew T. Smith127,
  136. Jos Snoeks128,129,
  137. Alison J. Stattersfield10,
  138. Andrew J. Symes10,
  139. Andrew B. Taber130,
  140. Bibhab K. Talukdar131,
  141. Helen J. Temple132,
  142. Rob Timmins133,
  143. Joseph A. Tobias134,
  144. Katerina Tsytsulina135,
  145. Denis Tweddle136,
  146. Carmen Ubeda137,
  147. Sarah V. Valenti60,
  148. Peter Paul van Dijk2,
  149. Liza M. Veiga138,139,
  150. Alberto Veloso140,
  151. David C. Wege10,
  152. Mark Wilkinson64,
  153. Elizabeth A. Williamson141,
  154. Feng Xie142,
  155. Bruce E. Young7,
  156. H. Resit Akçakaya143,
  157. Leon Bennun10,
  158. Tim M. Blackburn6,
  159. Luigi Boitani46,
  160. Holly T. Dublin144,145,
  161. Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca146,147,
  162. Claude Gascon2,
  163. Thomas E. Lacher Jr.18,
  164. Georgina M. Mace148,
  165. Susan A. Mainka149,
  166. Jeffery A. McNeely149,
  167. Russell A. Mittermeier2,149,
  168. Gordon McGregor Reid150,
  169. Jon Paul Rodriguez151,
  170. Andrew A. Rosenberg2,
  171. Michael J. Samways152,
  172. Jane Smart149,
  173. Bruce A. Stein153,
  174. Simon N. Stuart1,2,154,155
  1. 1IUCN SSC Species Survival Commission, c/o United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK.
  2. 2Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Arlington, VA 22202, USA.
  3. 3Species Programme, IUCN, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK.
  4. 4IUCN–CI Biodiversity Assessment Unit, c/o P.O. Box 19004, 360 A Bloor Street W., Toronto, Ontario M5S 1X1, Canada.
  5. 5Species Programme, IUCN, Rue Mauverney 28, 1196, Gland, Switzerland.
  6. 6Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK.
  7. 7NatureServe, 1101 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209, USA.
  8. 8World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 4031, Philippines.
  9. 9School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.
  10. 10BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK.
  11. 11Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.
  12. 12IUCN–CI Biodiversity Assessment Unit, c/o 130 Weatherall Road, Cheltenham 3192, Victoria, Australia.
  13. 13IUCN–CI Biodiversity Assessment Unit, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive Ste 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA.
  14. 14IUCN Shark Specialist Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada.
  15. 15National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore 560 065, India.
  16. 16Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS UMR5175, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France.
  17. 17IADIZA-CONICET, CCT-Mendoza, CC 507, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina.
  18. 18Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
  19. 19Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Perth, Western Australia 6986, Australia.
  20. 20CNR–Institute for Ecosystem Studies, Viale dell’Università 32, 00185 Rome, Italy.
  21. 21Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab.1, Russia.
  22. 22Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Via G. Giolitti, 36, I-10123 Torino, Italy.
  23. 23Taronga Conservation Society Australia, Taronga Zoo, P.O. Box 20, Mosman 2088, Sydney, Australia.
  24. 24Martin Barrios 2230 c/ Pizarro; Barrio Republicano, Asunción, Paraguay.
  25. 25Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK.
  26. 26Unidad de Investigación Ecología Terrestre, Centro Nacional Patagónico–CONICET, Boulevard Brown 2915, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
  27. 27Patagonian and Andean Steppe Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Boulevard Brown 2915, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
  28. 28Centre for Biodiversity & Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand.
  29. 29Systematics Lab, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.
  30. 30Center for Biodiversity and Biosecurity Studies, Pacific Institute for Sustainable Development, Jalan Bumi Nyiur 101, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
  31. 31Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 SM de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.
  32. 32P.O. Box 47074, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
  33. 33Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, 11501-2060 San José, Costa Rica.
  34. 34Sección de Zoología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13, No. 100-00, Cali, Colombia.
  35. 35Earthwatch Institute, 256 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DE, UK.
  36. 36Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, Scotland, UK.
  37. 3747B Lewisham Hill, London SE13 7PL, UK.
  38. 38Laboratorio de Herpetologia, Universidad del Valle, Carrera 51, No. 8H-15, Cali, Colombia.
  39. 39WWF Italy–Species Office, Via Po 25/c 00198 Rome, Italy.
  40. 40British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.
  41. 41Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa.
  42. 42Bio-Amazonia Conservation International, 1295 William Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, USA.
  43. 43Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Depto Ciências Pesqueiras, Manaus, AM 60700, Brazil.
  44. 44National Museum of Marine Biology and aquarium, 2 Houwan Road, Checheng, Pingtung 944, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  45. 45United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK.
  46. 46Department of Animal and Human Biology, Sapienza Università di Roma, Viale dell’Università 32, 00185 Roma, Italy.
  47. 47Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Goerlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Goerlitz, Germany.
  48. 48National Marine Fisheries Service Systematics Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, MRC-0153, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA.
  49. 49Av. Busch, Edificio Girasoles 2, Piso 5, Depto 7, La Paz, Bolivia.
  50. 50Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagüez, PR 00681, USA.
  51. 51Department of Biology, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855, USA.
  52. 52Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.
  53. 53Herpetology Section, Zoology Division, National Museum of the Philippines, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita 1000, Manila, Philippines.
  54. 54South African National Biodiversity Institute, KRC, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa.
  55. 55P.O. Box 5573, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
  56. 56c/o Birds Australia, 60 Leicester Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia.
  57. 57North Orissa University, Sriram Chandra Vihar, Takatpur, Baripada 757003, Dist: Mayurbhanj, Orissa, India.
  58. 58IUCN SSC African Rhino Specialist Group, Box 1212, Hilton 3245, South Africa.
  59. 59Herbarium, Library, Art & Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.
  60. 60NatureBureau, 36 Kingfisher Court, Hambridge Road, Newbury RG14 5SJ, UK.
  61. 61Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany.
  62. 62Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Grand Rapids, MN 55744, USA.
  63. 63Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles, 133 Cherry Hinton Road, Cambridge CB1 7BX, UK.
  64. 64Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK.
  65. 65San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, CA 92027, USA.
  66. 66NatureServe, 746 Middlepoint Road, Port Townsend, WA 98368, USA.
  67. 67Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Science, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.
  68. 68Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, USA.
  69. 69Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
  70. 70Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland, 4222, Australia.
  71. 71Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Glos GL2 7BT, UK.
  72. 72Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box #18, Dehra Dun, 248001 Uttarakhand, India.
  73. 73Calle Arica 371, Dpto U-2, Miraflores, Lima 18, Perú.
  74. 74School of Arts and Sciences, Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Zempukuji 2-6-1, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 167-8585, Japan.
  75. 75School of Life Sciences and Technologi, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 10, Jalan Ganesa, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.
  76. 76Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, UK.
  77. 77School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK.
  78. 78Madagasikara Voakajy, B.P. 5181, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar.
  79. 79Iwate Prefectural University, Sugo 152-52, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0193, Japan.
  80. 80Route de la Baroche 12, 2952 Cornol, Switzerland.
  81. 81Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Department of Biological Sciences, 6 Science Drive 2, #03-01, 117546, Singapore.
  82. 82Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
  83. 83Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect, 33, Moscow 119071, Russia.
  84. 84Laboratorio de Biogeografía, Escuela de Geografía, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101, Venezuela.
  85. 85IUCN Species Programme, c/o 406 Randolph Hill Road, Randolph, NH 03593, USA.
  86. 86Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, Lam Kam Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR.
  87. 87Instituto de Herpetología, Fundación Miguel Lillo–CONICET, Miguel Lillo 251, 4000 SM de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.
  88. 88Conservation Breeding Specialist Group–European Regional Office, p/a Annuntiatenstraat 6, 2170 Merksem, Belgium.
  89. 89Biology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA.
  90. 90Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de Febrero 1378, 1426 Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  91. 91Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.
  92. 92Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
  93. 93ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia.
  94. 94Department of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK.
  95. 95World Pheasant Association, Newcastle University Biology Field Station, Close House Estate, Heddon on the Wall, Newcastle upon Tyne NE15 0HT, UK.
  96. 96115 Suez Road, Cambridge CB1 3QD, UK.
  97. 97Wildlife Trust Alliance, Box 2031, Arusha, Tanzania.
  98. 98Zoo Outreach Organisation, 9A Lal Bahadur Colony, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641004, India.
  99. 99El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Apartado postal 63, Carretera Panamericana y Periférico sur s/n Col. María Auxiliadora, 29290, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México.
  100. 100Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA.
  101. 101CAT, P.O. Box 332, Cape Neddick, ME 03902, USA.
  102. 102Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
  103. 103Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland.
  104. 104Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  105. 105Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, México.
  106. 106Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 3333 North Torrey Pines Court, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
  107. 107International Sturgeon Research Institute, P.O. Box 41635-3464, Rasht, Iran.
  108. 108Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter in Cornwall, Penryn TR10 9EZ, UK.
  109. 109Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco), c/o P.O. Box 202, Cambria, CA 93428, USA.
  110. 110USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, MRC 111, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013, USA.
  111. 111Chelonian Research Foundation, 168 Goodrich Street, Lunenburg, MA 01462, USA.
  112. 112Herpetology Department, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
  113. 113Rapid Assessment Program, Conservation International, P.O. Box 1024, Atherton, Queensland 4883, Australia.
  114. 114German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH, Pasaje Bernardo Alcedo N° 150, piso 4, El Olivar, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú.
  115. 115Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Av. 12 de Octubre y Veintimilla, Quito, Ecuador.
  116. 116School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong SAR.
  117. 117Society for the Conservation of Reef Fish Aggregations, 9888 Caroll Centre Road, Suite 102, San Diego, CA 92126, USA.
  118. 118School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Darling Building, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide 5005, Australia.
  119. 119Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, México.
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  121. 121Sirenian International, 200 Stonewall Drive, Fredericksburg, VA 22401, USA.
  122. 122Department of Biology, P.O. Box 8042, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460, USA.
  123. 123IUCN SSC Tapir Specialist Group, 330 Shareditch Road, Columbia, SC 29210, USA.
  124. 124Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
  125. 125Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Recanati-Kaplan Centre, Tubney House, Tubney OX13 5QL, UK.
  126. 126Laboratório de Zoologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Campus I-Q.S. 07 Lote 01 EPCT-Taguatinga-DF, 71966-700, Brazil.
  127. 127School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
  128. 128Royal Museum for Central Africa, Ichthyology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium.
  129. 129Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Animal Diversity and Systematics, Charles Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
  130. 130Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Bogor Barat 16115, Indonesia.
  131. 131Aaranyak and International Rhino Foundation, 50 Samanwoy Path (Survey), Post Office Beltola, Guwahati-781 028, Assam, India.
  132. 132The Biodiversity Consultancy Ltd., 4 Woodend, Trumpington, Cambridge CB2 9LJ, UK.
  133. 1332313 Willard Avenue, Madison, WI 53704, USA.
  134. 134Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.
  135. 135Vertebrate Research Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Environmental Research Complex, Gyoungseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-708, South Korea.
  136. 136South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, P/Bag 1015, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.
  137. 137Departamento de Zoologia, Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Quintral 1250, 8400 Bariloche, Argentina.
  138. 138Emilio Goeldi Museum, Av. Perimetral, 1901, Belém, Pará 66017-970, Brazil.
  139. 139Federal University of Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa, 01, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil.
  140. 140Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 6553, Santiago, Chile.
  141. 141Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.
  142. 142Chengdu Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, P.R. China.
  143. 143Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
  144. 144IUCN SSC, African Elephant Specialist Group, c/o IUCN ESARO, P.O. Box 68200, Nairobi 00200, Kenya.
  145. 145Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460, USA.
  146. 146Global Environment Facility, 1818 H Street NW, G 6-602, Washington, DC 20433, USA.
  147. 147Department of Zoology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
  148. 148Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK.
  149. 149IUCN, 28 Rue Mauverney, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.
  150. 150North of England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Upton-by-Chester, Chester CH2 1LH, UK.
  151. 151Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela, and Provita, Apartado 47552, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela.
  152. 152Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, P/Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
  153. 153National Wildlife Federation, 901 E Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20004, USA.
  154. 154Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
  155. 155Al Ain Wildlife Park & Resort, P.O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mike.hoffmann{at}iucn.org

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Oct 20175049585
Nov 20175348876
Dec 20173924457
Jan 20184785263
Feb 20185045273
Mar 20184895297
Apr 20184964586
May 20185163487
Jun 20183952079
Jul 20183492284
Aug 20183777153
Sep 20186266976
Oct 2018577117129
Nov 20181327129127
Dec 20185449185
Jan 201943411488
Feb 201940910865
Mar 201936314988
Apr 201933214671
May 201928513258
Jun 20192649343
Jul 20192617354
Aug 20192816452
Sep 20192978444
Oct 20191032917