Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books

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Science  14 Jan 2011:
Vol. 331, Issue 6014, pp. 176-182
DOI: 10.1126/science.1199644

Article Information

vol. 331 no. 6014 176-182

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History: 
  • Received for publication October 27, 2010
  • Accepted for publication December 6, 2010

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Author Information

  1. Jean-Baptiste Michel1,2,3,4,5,*,,
  2. Yuan Kui Shen2,6,7,
  3. Aviva Presser Aiden2,6,8,
  4. Adrian Veres2,6,9,
  5. Matthew K. Gray10,
  6. The Google Books Team10,
  7. Joseph P. Pickett11,
  8. Dale Hoiberg12,
  9. Dan Clancy10,
  10. Peter Norvig10,
  11. Jon Orwant10,
  12. Steven Pinker5,
  13. Martin A. Nowak1,13,14,
  14. Erez Lieberman Aiden1,2,6,14,15,16,17,*,
  1. 1Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  2. 2Cultural Observatory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  3. 3Institute for Quantitative Social Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  4. 4Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  5. 5Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  6. 6Laboratory-at-Large, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  7. 7Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  8. 8Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
  9. 9Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  10. 10Google, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.
  11. 11Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA 02116, USA.
  12. 12Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, IL 60654, USA.
  13. 13Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  14. 14Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  15. 15Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  16. 16School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  17. 17Harvard Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jb.michel{at}gmail.com (J.-B.M.); erez{at}erez.com (E.L.A.)
  1. * These authors contributed equally to this work.

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