Research Article

Evolution of Ocean Temperature and Ice Volume Through the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition

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Science  10 Aug 2012:
Vol. 337, Issue 6095, pp. 704-709
DOI: 10.1126/science.1221294

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  1. Fig. 1

    Records on the LR04 chronology of (A) The LR04 benthic δ18O stack (19) (red); ODP 1123 benthic δ18O (original data in blue open symbol and smoothed record with a Gaussian filter having a span of 5 ky as a line in blue); (B) Record on the EDC3 chronology (20) of ODP 1123 benthic Mg/Ca temperature (original data in green and smoothed record with a 5-ky Gaussian filter red) and Antarctic temperature (16) (blue). Data were converted to units of standard deviation. Ordinate axes show mean temperatures (in red and blue) and also values of mean ±3σ°C. MIS is labeled for orientation in Fig. 1A and in shaded panels in Fig. 1B. (C) Ice volume (δ18O of seawater) derived from ODP 1123 Mg/Ca and δ18OC (blue) compared with the simulation of Bintanja et al. (11) (red) and record from the Red Sea (28) (green).

  2. Fig. 2

    Comparison of contributions of changes in ice volume, ΔδW (blue) and temperature, ΔT (red) to benthic δ18O, ΔδC (green): (A) for 0 to 1000 ka and (B) for 1000 to 1500 ka. Data are plotted as “cold upwards.” Temperature converted to δT ‰ units using 0.25 ‰ per °C/0.1 mmol/mol per °C. Histogram of data shown in fig. S8.

  3. Fig. 3

    Wavelet plots using Sowas software (29, 30). These plots make it clear that the 100-ky cyclicity is most powerful in δ18OW over 700 to 300 ka, and in the temperature 400 to 100 ka, with the calcite δ18O a “fusion” of the two.

  4. Fig. 4

    (A) Record over 750 to 1000 ka showing age of the MPT at MIS 22 inferred from δ18OW (sea level) (blue). Also shown is benthic δ13C (red). MIS with boundaries taken from LR04 (19) are labeled and shown in shaded panels for orientation. (B) Normalized orbital variation in energy received by Earth at eccentricity and obliquity (blue and green dashed lines) and Northern and Southern Hemisphere (red and blue lines) insolation frequencies for the period 1 Ma to 800 ka; note the antiphase relation between obliquity and a wide Southern Hemisphere insolation peak at 920 to 900 ka.

  5. Fig. 5

    Record of benthic δ13C and δ18O of seawater. δ13C at MIS 22 is most depleted of benthic δ13C values in the Pacific and Atlantic over the past 5 million years (42).

  6. Fig. 6

    Records of εNd (red) and δ13C (blue) for three periods within core ODP 1123: (A) 0 to 30 ka, (B) 300 to 500 ka, (C) 1150 to 1250 ka. All show that in warm periods, εNd is more negative, suggesting greater NADW influence.