Research Article

Electrically, Chemically, and Photonically Powered Torsional and Tensile Actuation of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

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Science  16 Nov 2012:
Vol. 338, Issue 6109, pp. 928-932
DOI: 10.1126/science.1226762

Article Information

vol. 338 no. 6109 928-932

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History: 
  • Received for publication July 2, 2012
  • Accepted for publication September 13, 2012
  • .

Author Information

  1. Márcio D. Lima1,*,
  2. Na Li1,2,*,
  3. Mônica Jung de Andrade1,
  4. Shaoli Fang1,
  5. Jiyoung Oh1,
  6. Geoffrey M. Spinks3,
  7. Mikhail E. Kozlov1,
  8. Carter S. Haines1,
  9. Dongseok Suh1,
  10. Javad Foroughi3,
  11. Seon Jeong Kim4,
  12. Yongsheng Chen2,
  13. Taylor Ware1,
  14. Min Kyoon Shin4,
  15. Leonardo D. Machado5,
  16. Alexandre F. Fonseca6,
  17. John D. W. Madden7,
  18. Walter E. Voit1,
  19. Douglas S. Galvão5,
  20. Ray H. Baughman1,
  1. 1The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA.
  2. 2Centre of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.
  3. 3Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
  4. 4Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, South Korea.
  5. 5Applied Physics Department, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 13081-970, Brazil.
  6. 6Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP, 17033-360, Brazil.
  7. 7Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed: E-mail: ray.baughman{at}utdallas.edu
  1. * These authors contributed equally to this work.

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