Copper's Contribution to Amination Catalysis

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Science  09 Aug 2013:
Vol. 341, Issue 6146, pp. 624-626
DOI: 10.1126/science.1237175

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Copper complexes are used as catalysts in modern synthetic chemistry because of their low cost, versatile reactivity, and broad tolerance for functional groups on substrates. Oxidation states in copper complexes can range from Cu0 to CuIV, and the metal center can participate in either two-electron or single-electron processes, sometimes both in the same catalytic cycle (16). This perspective highlights copper's contribution to amination catalysis, specifically the formation of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) bonds by coupling amines or amides with aryl halides (ArX) and alkyl halides (Ullmann-Goldberg reaction), arenes and alkanes [carbon-hydrogen (C–H) bond amination], or alkenes (oxidative amination, aminooxygenation, carboamination, and diamination).