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Pacific Ocean Heat Content During the Past 10,000 Years

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Science  01 Nov 2013:
Vol. 342, Issue 6158, pp. 617-621
DOI: 10.1126/science.1240837

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  1. Fig. 1 Down-core records from sites in the IPWP.

    (A) Mg/Ca-derived SST from the Makassar Strait (70GGC, red), Flores Sea (13GGC, gray), and Timor Sea (MD78, magenta) (16, 18). (B) Mg/Ca-derived thermocline water temperature (TWT) from sites in the Timor Sea (18), Philippines Sea (20), and northern South China Sea (19) (see fig. S2 for map of sites). (C) Intermediate water temperatures from the Indonesian bathymetric transect. (D) Bottom water δ18Osw-iv corrected for ice volume (iv) effect. Age models for the records are based on accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating (table S1) and marked with triangles at the bottom. 14C date color coding is as shown in the bottom key. S.L., sea level; SMOW, standard mean ocean water; ‰, per mil.

  2. Fig. 2 Comparison between Holocene reconstructions of surface and intermediate-water temperatures.

    (A) Global (red) and 30°N to 90°N (green) surface temperatures anomalies, (B) 30°S to 90°S surface temperature anomalies (24), (C) changes in IWT at 500 m, and (D) changes in IWT at 600 to 900 m. All anomalies are calculated relative to the temperature at 1850 to 1880 CE. Shaded bands represent ±1 SD. Note the different temperature scales.

  3. Fig. 3 Temperature anomaly reconstructions for the Common era relative to the modern data (note that the age scale is in Common era years with the present on the right).

    (A) Change in SST from the Makassar Straits [orange, based on (26) compared with NH temperature anomalies (27, 28)]. (B) Compiled IWT anomalies based on Indonesian records spanning the ~500- to 900-m water depth (for individual records, see fig. S7). The shaded band represents ±1 SD.

  4. Fig. 4 Holocene changes in Pacific Ocean heat content.

    (A) Reconstructed anomalies in Pacific OHC in the 0- to 700-m depth interval for the early Holocene, mid-Holocene, MWP, and LIA periods. Reconstructed anomalies are calculated relative to the reference period of 1965 to 1970 CE (15). (B) Reconstructed rates of OHC change during the main transition periods. Reconstructed anomalies and rates are compared with modern observations for the 2000 to 2010 and 1955 to 2010 CE periods, respectively (5). The middle line at each box represents an average estimate for 50% of the Pacific volume between 0 and 700 m, whereas the top and bottom quartiles of the box represent 62.5 and 37.5% of the total volume in this depth interval, respectively. The bottom whiskers represent 25% of the volume; the top whisker denotes 75%. The modern value is based on the entire Pacific volume for 0 to 700 m.