Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans

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Science  16 May 2014:
Vol. 344, Issue 6185, pp. 750-754
DOI: 10.1126/science.1252619

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  1. Fig. 1 The site and skull form of the HN human remains.

    HN5/48 was found far to the southeast of other ancient American skeletons from which DNA has been obtained (A). HN5/48 lies at the bottom of HN, a submerged chamber shown in plan and profile (B and C). Paleoamerican features are visible in this view of the cranium (D). Paisley Cave is an early site with DNA but without Paleoamerican skeletal remains.

  2. Fig. 2 Radiocarbon and U-Th dates from HN compared to relative sea level (RSL).

    Radiocarbon dates on a human tooth (red histogram) and U-Th dates from calcite florets on human bones [green bars in (D)] place HN5/48 between 12,910 and 11,750 calendar yr B.P. [pink bar in (A)]. Calcite florets (C and D) and guano deposits [yellow histograms in (B)] ceased forming when rising sea level surpassed 42 mbsl and permanently inundated the human remains (blue bar). The global RSL model presented is from corals with a 234U/238U activity range of 1.137 to 1.157 (21), modified by an estimated glacial isostasy adjustment (GIA) of 3.5 m (20). Measurement standards: NGRIP, North Greenland Ice Core Project; VSMOW, Vienna standard mean ocean water.

  3. Fig. 3 Base-pair substitutions (numbers) confirming the presence of mtDNA haplogroups D and D1 in HN5/48.

    Colors represent substitutions confirmed in multiple extracts with restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing (orange), multiple extracts with DNA sequencing (green), and a single extract with DNA sequencing (blue).