Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals

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Science  31 Oct 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6209, pp. 635-638
DOI: 10.1126/science.1258410

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Low oxygen limited the rise of animals

Oxygen levels in Earth's early atmosphere had an important influence on the evolution of complex life. Planavsky et al. analyzed the isotopic signature of chromium in sedimentary rocks from across the globe—a proxy for past oxygen levels. Oxygen levels in the mid-Proterozoic (1.6 billion to 900 million years ago) were very low: less than 0.1% of the modern atmosphere. These low levels were probably below the minimum oxygen requirements for the earliest animals, delaying their emergence and diversification.

Science, this issue p. 635


The oxygenation of Earth’s surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from Phanerozoic time, we find evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth’s surface in the mid-Proterozoic (1.8 to 0.8 billion years ago). These data suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels. Direct evidence for such low O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic helps explain the late emergence and diversification of metazoans.

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