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Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

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Science  07 Nov 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6210, pp. 735-739
DOI: 10.1126/science.1258966

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Dissecting ancient microbial sulfur cycling

Before the rise of oxygen, life on Earth depended on the marine sulfur cycle. The fractionation of different sulfur isotopes provides clues to which biogeochemical cycles were active long ago (see the Perspective by Ueno). Zhelezinskaia et al. found negative isotope anomalies in Archean rocks from Brazil and posit that metabolic fluxes from sulfate-reducing microorganisms influenced the global sulfur cycle, including sulfur in the atmosphere. In contrast, Paris et al. found positive isotope anomalies in Archean sediments from South Africa, implying that the marine sulfate pool was more disconnected from atmospheric sulfur. As an analog for the Archean ocean, Crowe et al. measured sulfur isotope signatures in modern Lake Matano, Indonesia, and suggest that low seawater sulfate concentrations restricted early microbial activity.

Science, this issue p. 703, p. 742, p. 739; see also p. 735

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