The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies

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Science  14 Nov 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6211, pp. 841-844
DOI: 10.1126/science.1257226

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  1. Fig. 1 Distribution of male infanticide across mammals.

    Male infanticide has been reported for about half of all species in our sample (open circles) and seems to have evolved independently multiple times. It mostly occurs in social species (dark gray branches), less in solitary species (light gray branches), and least in monogamous species (black branches). Animal drawings are from [for full credit, see (18)]

  2. Fig. 2 Infanticide is associated with polygynous mating systems.

    Male infanticide occurs in species in which (A) social groups contain more females per male, (B) dominant males obtain a higher share of reproduction in a given season, but (C) maintain their dominant position for shorter periods (here measured as the average number of interbirth intervals).

  3. Fig. 3 Loss of male infanticide occurs in species with large testes.

    In some lineages in which males commit infanticide, testes appear to increase in size (relative to body mass) and subsequently, male infanticide is lost when testes have become relatively large.

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