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Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines

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Science  16 Jan 2015:
Vol. 347, Issue 6219, pp. 262-265
DOI: 10.1126/science.1261375
  • Fig. 1 Field-specific ability beliefs and the percentage of female 2011 U.S. Ph.D.’s in

    (A) STEM and (B) Social Science and Humanities.

  • Fig. 2 Field-specific ability beliefs and the percentage of 2011 U.S. Ph.D.’s who are

    (A) African American and (B) Asian American.

  • Table 1 Hierarchical regression models predicting female representation.

    N = 30 disciplines. Significant statistics are bold. R2 comparisons are always with the preceding model (to the left).

    Predictor    Model 1    Model 2    Model 3    Model 4    Model 5
    βtPβtPβtPβtPβtP
    STEM indicator–0.50**–3.030.005–0.42**-3.200.003(–0.35)(–1.49)(0.148)(–0.30)(–1.34)(0.193)(–0.28)(–1.07)(0.297)
    Field-specific ability beliefs–0.55***-4.13<0.001–0.56***–3.98<0.001–0.58***–4.17<0.001–0.56**–3.460.002
    On-campus hours worked(–0.09)(–0.41)(0.687)(–0.01)(–0.03)(0.975)(0.02)(0.07)(0.945)
    Selectivity(0.24)(1.55)(0.134)(0.24)(1.54)(0.137)
    Systemizing versus empathizing(–0.06)(–0.23)(0.817)
    R20.250.54(0.54)(0.58)(0.58)
    F for change in R29.19**17.08***(0.17)(2.40)(0.06)
    P for change in R20.005<0.001(0.687)(0.134)(0.817)

    **P < 0 0.01. ***P < 0.001.

    • Table 2 Hierarchical regression models predicting African American representation.

      N = 30 disciplines. Significant statistics are bold. R2 comparisons are always with the preceding model (to the left).

      PredictorModel 1Model 2
          β    t    P    β    t    P
      STEM indicator(0.05)(0.15)(0.878)(–0.06)(–0.21)(0.833)
      Total hours worked(–0.13)(–0.58)(0.571)(–0.26)(–1.30)(0.207)
      Selectivity(–0.21)(–0.88)(0.387)(–0.19)(–0.93)(0.359)
      Systemizing versus empathizing(–0.23)(–0.71)(0.487)(0.10)(0.35)(0.733)
      Field-specific ability beliefs–0.61**–3.280.003
      R2(0.06)0.35
      F for change in R2(0.37)10.76**
      P for change in R2(0.827)0.003

      **P < 0.01.

      Additional Files

      • Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines

        Sarah-Jane Leslie, Andrei Cimpian, Meredith Meyer, Edward Freeland

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        • Materials and Methods
        • Figs. S1 and S2
        • Tables S1 to S8
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