Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in transitioning mammalian cells

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Science  27 Feb 2015:
Vol. 347, Issue 6225, pp. 1010-1014
DOI: 10.1126/science.1259418

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Uncaging promoter and enhancer dynamics

In order to understand cellular differentiation, it is important to understand the timing of the regulation of gene expression. Arner et al. used cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to analyze gene enhancer and promoter activities in a number of human and mouse cell types. The RNA of enhancers was transcribed first, followed by that of transcription factors, and finally by genes that are not transcription factors.

Science, this issue p. 1010


Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14 mouse time courses covering a wide range of cell types and biological stimuli. Enhancer RNAs, then messenger RNAs encoding transcription factors, dominated the earliest responses. Binding sites for key lineage transcription factors were simultaneously overrepresented in enhancers and promoters active in each cellular system. Our data support a highly generalizable model in which enhancer transcription is the earliest event in successive waves of transcriptional change during cellular differentiation or activation.

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