Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes

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Science  26 Jun 2015:
Vol. 348, Issue 6242, pp. 1460-1462
DOI: 10.1126/science.1261224
  1. Fig. 1 Experimental design and quantitative genetics of larval heat tolerance.

    (A) Sampling locations and their annual temperature regimes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (B) Crossing design matrix where solid squares represent established crosses. (C) Experimental design to quantify gene expression differences between parental colonies under heat stress (31.5°C for 3 days). (D) Mortality curves ± SE for each larval family. In the family identifier, the first letter is dam (mother); the second letter is sire (father). (E) Proportion of total deviance explained by parental effects. (F) Increase in odds of larval survival with parents from the warmer location (PCB) relative to the larvae with both parents from the cooler location (OI). ***P < 0.001, *P < 0.05. Whiskers on (E) and (F) denote 95% credible interval of the posterior.

  2. Fig. 2 Gene expression associated with larval heat tolerance.

    (A) Bar chart for survival odds under heat stress for each larval culture, ranked in increasing order. (B) Heat map of 1973 genes (rows) for which the expression before heat stress predicts the survival odds under stress. Columns are larval cultures ordered as in the bar chart above (A). (C and D) GO categories significantly enriched with genes either positively (red) or negatively (black) associated with heat tolerance. The dendrograms depict the sharing of genes between categories; the fractions correspond to genes with an unadjusted P < 0.05 relative to the total number of genes within the category. (C) Molecular function. ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase; NAD(P)H, reduced form of nicotinamide adeninine dinucleotide. (D) Cellular component.

  3. Fig. 3 Coral gene expression responses compared among data sets.

    (A) Heat map of enrichment of KOG classes (rows) by differentially expressed genes in different data sets (columns). The KOG classes significantly enriched (FDR = 0.05) with up- or down-regulated genes are identified by raised tiles. (B) Correlation of KOG delta ranks between larval response to 5-day heat stress and adult response to 3-day heat stress. (C) Correlation of KOG delta ranks between larval heat tolerance and larval heat stress response. The red lines on (B) and (C) are loess regression.

  4. Fig. 4 Manhattan plot of allele frequency difference after selection by heat.

    (A) Selection effects in CA family. (B) Selection effects in AC family. (C) Differences in allele frequencies among control samples. Red points show markers at 5% FDR according to the Fisher’s combined probability test; blue bars identify regions with significant clustering of such markers (according to 100,000 bootstrapped replicates).