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Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’s major poaching hotspots

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Science  03 Jul 2015:
Vol. 349, Issue 6243, pp. 84-87
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa2457
  1. Fig. 1 Philippines seizures from 1996 to 2005 were assigned to eastern DRC.

    Blue circles represent ivory assignments. Green crosses represent locations of forest elephant reference samples used in the assignments. Red diamonds represent initial transit locations out of Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Zambia.

  2. Fig. 2 Singapore seizures from 2002 and 2007 were largely assigned to Zambia.

    Blue circles represent ivory assignments. Orange crosses represent locations of savanna elephant reference samples used in the assignments. Red diamonds represent initial transit locations out of Africa: seizure (A) = Malawi via South Africa; seizure (B) = Egypt.

  3. Fig. 3 Forest elephant seizures from 2006 to 2014 were largely assigned to the TRIDOM in northeastern Gabon, northwestern Republic of Congo, and southeastern Cameroon and neighboring Dzanga Sanga in southwestern CAR.

    Forest elephant reference sample locations (green crosses) are shown in the first map only, along with a box designating the magnified areas displayed in all subsequent maps. Blue circles represent ivory assignments. Initial transit locations out of Africa (solid diamonds) and areas where ivory was seized prior to transit out of Africa (open diamonds) include the following: seizure (A) = Cameroon; seizures (B) to (D) and (F) = Togo; seizure (E) = Nigeria.

  4. Fig. 4 Savanna elephant seizures from 2006 to 2014 were largely assigned to southeastern Tanzania and adjacent northern Mozambique, but eventually shifted northward within Tanzania.

    Savanna elephant reference sample locations (orange crosses) are shown in the first map only, along with a box designating the magnified areas displayed in all subsequent maps. Blue circles represent ivory assignments. Most savanna ivory transited (solid diamonds) or was seized (open diamonds) from East African countries: seizures (A) to (E) = Tanzania; seizures (F), (H), and (J) = Kenya; seizure (G) = Mozambique; seizures (K) and (M) = Uganda to Kenya, seizure (L) = Malawi, and seizures (N) and (O) = Uganda. Seizure (I) was exceptional, transiting Togo, West Africa.

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