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Covalent organic frameworks comprising cobalt porphyrins for catalytic CO2 reduction in water

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Science  11 Sep 2015:
Vol. 349, Issue 6253, pp. 1208-1213
DOI: 10.1126/science.aac8343
  • Fig. 1 Design and synthesis of metalloporphyrin-derived 2D covalent organic frameworks.

    The space-filling structural models of COF-366-M and COF-367-M were obtained using Materials Studio 7.0 and refined with experimental PXRD data.

  • Fig. 2 Structural characterization of COF-366-Co and COF-367-Co.

    (A) SEM image of COF-366-Co. (B) Experimental (red line) and simulated (blue line) PXRD patterns of COF-366-Co. a.u., arbitrary units. (C) Nitrogen adsorption isotherm for COF-366-Co. P, pressure of the system; P0, saturation pressure. (D) SEM image of COF-367-Co. (E) Experimental (red line) and simulated (blue line) PXRD patterns of COF-367-Co. (F) Nitrogen adsorption isotherm for COF-367-Co.

  • Fig. 3 Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterizations and carbon dioxide reduction performance of the COFs.

    (A) Cyclic voltammograms of COF-366-Co and COF-367-Co in carbon dioxide–saturated medium (blue and red solid lines, respectively) or nitrogen-saturated medium (blue and red dotted lines, respectively). The black solid line shows background (bare carbon electrode) CV responses in carbon dioxide–saturated medium. The medium was pH 7.2 aqueous potassium phosphate buffer (0.2 M) with additives: 0.5 M KHCO3 under carbon dioxide atmosphere to maintain a neutral pH, or 0.5 M NaClO4 under nitrogen atmosphere to match the ionic strength. (B) Long-term bulk electrolyses at –0.67 V (versus RHE), showing the volume of carbon monoxide produced by COF-367-Co (red solid triangles), COF-366-Co (blue solid circles), or Co(TAP) (black solid squares) and the volume of hydrogen produced by COF-367-Co (red open triangles), COF-366-Co (blue open circles), or Co(TAP) (black open squares). (C) Bulk electrolyses of bimetallic COFs at –0.67 V (versus RHE), showing TON of carbon monoxide production by COF-367-Co(1%) (red solid triangles), COF-367-Co(10%) (blue solid circles), COF-367-Co (orange solid squares), or COF-367-Cu (purple solid inverted triangle; TON with respect to the amount of copper porphyrin). Two separate experimental runs were conducted for each time point, with the line showing the average of the measurements. (D) Long-term bulk electrolysis of COF-367-Co(1%) at –0.67 V (versus RHE). (E) Tafel plots of electrolysis using COF-367-Co (red solid circles), COF-366-Co (blue solid triangles), or Co(TAP) (black solid diamonds), showing only the linear, low–current density regime where the reaction rate is not limited by mass transport. (F) X-ray absorption spectra of COF-367-Co (orange line), COF-367-Co(10%) (blue line), and Co(TAP) (black line). The inset shows the pre-edge regime of the same spectra. (G) Spectroelectrochemical data using in situ UV-Vis, showing the steady-state relative absorbance at different applied potentials (0.23 to –0.57 V versus RHE) with reference to that at 0.33 V. (H) Time dependence of the relative UV-Vis absorbance at 640-nm wavelength at –0.57 V, with respect to the steady-state UV-Vis absorbance at 640 nm at 0.33 V. Potential is applied at 4 s. Linear regression yielded the apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) according to a modified Cottrell equation: Embedded Image (fig. S81) (47). Here, Amax is the maximum absorption of the thin films at 640 nm, d is the overall thickness of the thin films, and t is time.

Supplementary Materials

  • Covalent organic frameworks comprising cobalt porphyrins for catalytic CO2 reduction in water

    Song Lin, Christian S. Diercks, Yue-Biao Zhang, Nikolay Kornienko, Eva M. Nichols, Yingbo Zhao, Aubrey R. Paris, Dohyung Kim, Peidong Yang, Omar M. Yaghi, Christopher J. Chang

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S96
    • Tables S1 to S21

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