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Wrapping it up in a person: Examining employment and earnings outcomes for Ph.D. recipients

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Science  11 Dec 2015:
Vol. 350, Issue 6266, pp. 1367-1371
DOI: 10.1126/science.aac5949
  • Fig. 1 UMETRICS doctoral recipients are placed at establishments that are larger and have higher payrolls per worker.

    Medians are dashed inner lines, and means are solid outer lines. The standard deviations in employment at establishments that employed UMETRICS doctoral recipients, at all U.S. establishments owned by R&D performing firms, and all U.S. establishments are 6407, 3661, and 2362, respectively; the standard deviations in annual payroll per worker are $120,199; $56,252; and $44,327, respectively; the differences in employment size and payroll per worker are statistically significant. Annual payroll per worker is the average payroll (the total payroll divided by the number of employees) across all employees at the three types of establishments—all U.S. establishments, all U.S. establishments owned by firms that perform R&D, and the establishments that employed UMETRICS doctoral recipients (regardless of whether they are owned by firms that perform R&D). National and R&D establishments are weighted by total establishment employment, whereas doctoral recipient establishments are weighted by the number of doctoral recipients employed. Values for annual payroll per worker are U.S.$1 ×1000.

  • Fig. 2 Annual payroll per worker at establishments that employed UMETRICS doctoral recipients, establishments owned by firms that perform R&D, and all U.S. establishments.

    Values for average annual payroll per employee are U.S.$1 ×10,000.

  • Fig. 3 The annual earnings and placement of doctoral recipients supported by grants vary by field.

    Young firms are defined to be those <5 years old. High–payroll per worker establishments are defined as those with a payroll per worker above the median for the establishments within their six-digit industry. Means and standard errors (error bars) for each variable.

  • Fig. 4 Annual earnings (U.S.$1 × 1000) and earnings growth of UMETRICS doctoral recipients by sector and discipline.

    The figure plots the smoothed share of UMETRICS doctoral recipients (the probability density estimated using a Gaussian kernel model) at each level of earnings or earnings growth (with bandwidths of $10,000; $10,000; and 25%, respectively). Individual earnings data are derived from a match to W-2 earnings data.

  • Table 1 Postgraduation employment of UMETRICS doctoral recipients who were paid by research grants and left the university between 2009 and 2011.

    The national workforce distribution is calculated from all employment in all establishments covered by the Census’s LBD between 2010 and 2012.

    Locale and smallDoctoral recipients placed in sector (%)
    IndustryAcademiaGovernmentAll
    R&D firmsNon-R&D firms
    Placed within sector17.021.757.14.1100.0
    National sample (M)10.875.010.73.5100.0
    Of those in sector, percent placed:
    Within 50 miles10.123.58.918.212.7
    Within state16.636.018.025.822.0

Supplementary Materials

  • Wrapping it up in a person: Examining employment and earnings outcomes for Ph.D. recipients

    Nikolas Zolas, Nathan Goldschlag, Ron Jarmin, Paula Stephan, Jason Owen- Smith, Rebecca F. Rosen, Barbara McFadden Allen, Bruce A. Weinberg, Julia I. Lane

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 and S2
    • Tables S1 to S8
    • References

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