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Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two-dimensional crystals

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Science  01 Jan 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6268, pp. 68-70
DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9726
  • Fig. 1 Proton versus deuteron conductivities of 2D crystals.

    (A) Examples of I-V characteristics for hydron transport through monolayers of hBN (main panel) and graphene (lower inset). Top inset: Schematics of the experimental setup. Pd electrodes supply protons or deuterons into H- or D-Nafion; 2D crystals serve as barriers for hydrons. (B) Proton and deuteron conductivities (shaded and solid bars, respectively) for the most hydron-conductive 2D crystals. Each bar (solid or shaded) corresponds to a different device (nearly 30 are shown). The dashed lines mark the average conductivities for the six sets of devices, and the shaded areas around them show the standard errors.

  • Fig. 2 Isotope separation by electrochemical pumping of hydrons through graphene.

    (A) Schematic of our mass spectrometry setup. (B) D2 flow versus applied current for various proton-deuteron fractions in the input electrolyte. The dashed lines are linear fits. (C) Relative fractions of H2, HD, and D2 in the output flow for eight different compositions of the input electrolyte. (D) Fraction of H atoms at the output for different [H+] inputs. Inset: Schematic of the energy barrier presented by a 2D crystal for proton and deuteron transfer. The black and blue horizontal lines indicate zero-point states of protons and deuterons, respectively, in Nafion and water. The solid red curve shows the separation dependence expected for the known difference EDEH = 60 meV, with no fitting parameters.

Supplementary Materials

  • Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two-dimensional crystals

    M. Lozada-Hidalgo, S. Hu, O. Marshall, A. Mishchenko, A. N. Grigorenko, R. A. W. Dryfe, B. Radha, I. V. Grigorieva, A. K. Geim

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S7
    • References

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