An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels

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Science  01 Jan 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6268, pp. 77-81
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1283
  • Fig. 1 Virus-neutralizing antibody responses to MERS-CoV, MVA, and camelpox virus in vaccinated dromedary camels.

    (A to D) Individual virus neutralization titers (VNT) from dromedary camels vaccinated with PBS, MVA-wt, or MVA-S against MERS-CoV [(A) and (B)], MVA (C), and camelpox virus (D), as determined from sera [(A), (C), and (D)] and nasal swabs (B). Here, VNT is expressed as the ratio denominator only [i.e., 32 on the y axis of (A) represents 1:32]. Different symbols indicate time points after immunization sera were analyzed: week 0 (black circles), week 4 (blue triangles), and week 7 (red squares). Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays

  • Fig. 2 Clinical signs and MERS-CoV excretion in nasal swabs of dromedary camels vaccinated with MVA-S vaccine.

    (A and B) Two MVA-S–vaccinated (A) and two control-vaccinated dromedary camels (B) were analyzed for the presence of mucus excretion 8 to 10 days after MERS-CoV challenge. (C and D) Detection of infectious MERS-CoV (C) and MERS-CoV RNA (D) at different time points after challenge in nasal swabs of dromedary camels vaccinated with MVA-S (white bars) or MVA-wt or PBS (black bars). Dashed lines depict the detection limit of the assays. Error bars represent mean values ± SEM; *P < 0.05; n = 4 animals per group. GE, genome equivalents.

  • Fig. 3 Detection of MERS-CoV in tissues of vaccinated dromedary camels.

    (A and B) Levels of MERS-CoV viral RNA (A) and infectious virus (B) were determined in tissue homogenates from MVA-S–vaccinated (green and black bars) or control-vaccinated (red and blue bars) camels 4 days after challenge.

  • Fig. 4 Histopathology and expression of viral antigen and viral RNA in the nasal respiratory epithelium of MVA-S–vaccinated and control-vaccinated dromedaries 4 days after challenge with MERS-CoV.

    (A to C) Detection of MERS-CoV viral RNA by ISH in the noses of MVA-S–vaccinated (A) or control-vaccinated (B) dromedary camels. Nasal respiratory tissue of a representative MVA-S–vaccinated dromedary exhibited no prominent lesions (C), as revealed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). IHC and ISH results revealed a few viral antigen–positive cells and the presence of viral RNA, respectively. Nasal respiratory tissue of a control (Ctrl)–vaccinated dromedary exhibited multifocal necrosis of epithelial cells and infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and a few macrophages in the epithelium and lamina propria, with viral antigens and viral RNA present in abundance at the same location (C).

Supplementary Materials

  • An orthopoxvirus-based vaccine reduces virus excretion after MERSCoV infection in dromedary camels

    Bart L. Haagmans, Judith M. A. van den Brand, V. Stalin Raj, Asisa Volz, Peter Wohlsein, Saskia L. Smits, Debby Schipper, Theo M. Bestebroer, Nisreen Okba, Robert Fux, Albert Bensaid, David Solanes Foz, Thijs Kuiken, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Joaquim Segalés, Gerd Sutter, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S7
    • Table S1
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