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# Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization

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Science  22 Jan 2016:

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• RE: Research Opportunities to Advance solar energy utilization

CRISPR gene editing will result in 15 billions because human life expectancy will nearly double. This means world energy will be:
World Energy = 8.5 EJ/a + 4.5 EJ/a * Exp(0.0225/a * (t - 1800)),
requiring 40 terawatts-electric average power generation by 2100, equivalent to 120 terawatts-thermal energy. Sufficient utility-scale energy storage to average 40 terawatts wind and solar energy, ~2 tarawatt-a, costing ~3000 trillion USD at 100 USD/kWh, will never exist. Minus utility-scale energy storage, wind, solar and big hydro will never average more than 2 terawatt's electric generation, a negligible contribution.
Mitigating CO2 requires zero-carbon generation, as thermal energy to be:
Zero carbon energy = 0.00060 EJ-electric/a * 3 Jthermal/Jelectric *
Exp(0.05 * (a - 1800)) .
Atomic power hast to continue expanding 5%/a from 2020. Otherwise atmospheric CO2 will increase to multiples of preindustrial 280 pp.
CO2 model assumes biofuels contributions is:
Biofuel energy = 13 EJ-thermal/a * Exp(0.007/a * (t - 1800).
Only atomic power can deliver the required 50 terawatt zero-carbon electricity. Resulting atmospheric carbon follows:
ppm-C = (2/3) * 0.0080536 * [(4.5/0.0225)
* {Exp(0.0225 * (t - 1800)) - 1.0} + 8.5 * (t - 1800) - (13/0.007)
* {Exp(0.007 * (t - 1800)) - 1.0} - (0.0006 * 3/0.05)
* {Exp(0.05 * (t - 1800)) - 1.0}] + 280 ppm-C preindustrial
Above assumes ocean continues ab...