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Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody

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Science  18 Mar 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6279, pp. 1339-1342
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad5224

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  • Time windows for effective antiviral carbohydrate diets
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Ying Zhang, Writting/Researcher, Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510440, China
      • Jiaming Zhang, Writting/Student, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Shuying He, Writting/Researcher, 450E 29th St, New York, NY 10016 USA

    As proteins rich in essential amino acids may play vital roles in viral virulence (1-4), carbohydrate diets have been proposed to serve as prophylactic agents against an upcoming epidemic or pandemic (4). A protein free starch diet may be best used before or in the early stages of viral infections for a highly pathogenic virus, because viral loads may be high at advanced stages of disease progression. Since cells may die in the presence of chloride ions or organic acids, or upon the local formation of HCl, it is advised against the co-delivery of NaCl during parenteral administrations of antiviral drugs. Alternative formulations without NaCl should be considered to avoid potential hazards during infections of highly virulent viruses.

    Ying Zhang, 2 Jiaming Zhang 3, Shuying He, 4 Qiuyun Liu, 1*
    1 State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, The Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2 Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510440, China
    3. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.
    4. 450E 29th St, New York, NY 10016 USA.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    REFERENCES
    1. J. He et al. Science, (2017);...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • RE: Sequence features of the virulence protein VP24 of Ebola virus
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Man Tang, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Shaoping Weng, Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Guangchuang Yu, Writting/Researcher, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
      • Kai Yang, Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Mengjia Pan, Writting/Student, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Shuying He, Writting/Researcher, 450E 29th St, New York, NY 10016 USA

    Leucine is significantly overrepresented in VP24 virulence proteins of many Ebola viruses with a content of about 14.7% (GenBank accession no. ALG02129.1), and VP24 proteins carried low content of acidic amino acid residues (7.6%) so as to unlikely counteract the toxic anion binding function of the protein with a basic amino acid content of 13.2%. The NMR chemical shifts of beta-carbon of leucine and phenylalanine are greater than leucine and isoleucine (1-2), suggesting that they are more positively charged at beta-carbon, and may have weak van der Waals interactions with the carbonyl groups (3). Peptides rich in leucine and basic amino acids may cause cell senescence (4-5), due to the weak secondary chemical bonding of carbonyl oxygen of leucine residues (3), consequently resulting in poor cation binding which is unable to cancel toxic functions of anions. The high content of basic amino acids, and hydrogen bond donors and acceptors may allow the local formation of HCl causing the extensive hemorrhagic fever of Ebola virus infections.
    High contents of some essential amino acids are perhaps signatures of many virulence proteins in numerous pathogenic viruses (3, 6-7). Terminal stretch of lysine/arginine at the basic cleavage site of hemagglutinin (RERRRKKR↓GLF) was signature of high virulence in H5N1 and other H5 viruses (8). Carbohydrate diet including vitamins or/and trace elements, consumed for two to four days, could be effective regimens against viral infection...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.

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