Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition

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Science  01 Apr 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6281, pp. 76-80
DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0669
  • Fig. 1 Location of key geographical and geological features in Southern McMurdo Sound.

    Boundary faults of the southern extension of Terror Rift are shown, together with the location of the CRP, MSSTS-1, and CIROS-1 drill sites.

  • Fig. 2 Astrochronological calibration of glacial events across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transitions.

    (A) Deep-sea oxygen and carbon isotopic record from ODP Site 1218 (2, 17). (B to H) Time series for climatic precession (B), obliquity (C), and eccentricity (D) correlated with magnetostratigraphy (E), lithostratigraphy (F), sequence stratigraphy (G) (13, 14), and square root of clast abundance (H) (30) for the Late Eocene–Early Oligocene CRP-3 drillcore. Thirty-seven shallow-marine sedimentary cycles (sequences; type B) occur in the lower 500 m of the core record, controlled by advances and retreats of land-terminating glaciers associated with sea-level oscillations of less than 20 m. Eleven overlying glaciomarine sedimentary cycles (sequences; type A), each bounded by glacial surfaces of erosion, occur in the upper 300 m of the CRP-3 core, and record oscillations in the extent of a more expansive marine-terminating ice sheet in Ross Embayment. (I) Inferred stages and events in the development of the AIS across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and their relationship to orbital forcing.

  • Fig. 3 Major glacial events recorded by clast abundance peaks from the CRP-3 core.

    (A and B) Events [gray bands in (A)] are calibrated to the astrochronologically tuned δ18O record from ODP Site 1218 (B) (2). (C) Major peaks in clast abundance from CRP-3 correspond to the onset of the EOT-1 shift and glacial maxima at the Oi1 and Oi1a, and are associated with prolonged intervals characterized by cold southern high latitude summers as expressed in the 70°S mean summer insolation. (D) AIS volume changes recorded by the sedimentary sequences and clast abundance (see Fig. 2) are paced by the influence of obliquity and precession on a smaller-sized terrestrial ice sheet between 34.2 and 32.8 Ma. (E) Comparison with available atmospheric pCO2 (partial pressure of atmospheric CO2) records based on boron isotope (21) and alkenone (7) proxies shows that the earliest evidence of ice sheet grounding in the CRP-3 core occurs at the Oi1a event (32.9 to 32.8 Ma), coincident with a major peak in clast abundance and a longer-term drop in atmospheric CO2 to below ~600 ppm.

Supplementary Materials

  • Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition

    Simone Galeotti, Robert DeConto, Timothy Naish, Paolo Stocchi, Fabio Florindo, Mark Pagani, Peter Barrett, Steven M. Bohaty, Luca Lanci, David Pollard, Sonia Sandroni, Franco M. Talarico, James C. Zachos

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S17
    • References

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