1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures

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Science  16 Sep 2016:
Vol. 353, Issue 6305, pp. 1268-1272
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8279
  • Fig. 1 Synthetic strategies for 1D nanocrystals, using amphiphilic cylindrical BBCPs as nanoreactors.

    (A) Plain nanorods templated by cellulose-g-(PAA-b-PS). St, styrene; tBA, tert-butyl acrylate. (B) Core-shell nanorods templated by cellulose-g-(P4VP-b-PtBA-b-PS). (C) Nanotubes templated by cellulose-g-(PS-b-PAA-b-PS).

  • Fig. 2 Formation of plain nanorods.

    (A) TEM images of upconversion NaYF4:Yb/Er nanorods templated by cellulose-g-(PAA-b-PS) (sample 2A in table S2). The lower right panel is a HRTEM image showing crystal lattices. The insets are digital images of NaYF4:Yb/Er nanorods in toluene (lower left panel) and dry state (upper right panel) before (left) and after (right) exposure to a 980-nm near-infrared laser. (B) The dimensional tunability of 1D Au nanorods is shown as an example. The upper panel shows the dependence of the length L of Au nanorods on the molecular weight Mn of cellulose-Br macroinitiator (table S1). The lower panel shows the dependence of the diameter D of Au nanorods (marked by arrows in the insets) on the molecular weight of PAA block in BBCP (table S2).

  • Fig. 3 TEM images of a variety of plain nanorods templated by cellulose-g-(PAA-b-PS).

    The dimensions of these nanorods are as follows: noble metallic Au, L= 206 ± 19 nm and D= 21.2 ± 1.5 nm from sample 3B; noble metallic Pt, L= 48 ± 5 nm and D= 10.2 ± 0.6 nm from sample 1A; ferroelectric BaTiO3, L= 101 ± 8 nm and D= 10.6 ± 0.8 nm from sample 2A; upconversion NaYF4:Yb/Er (green-emitting), L= 99 ± 10 nm and D= 9.6 ± 0.4 nm from sample 2A; upconversion NaYF4:Yb/Tm (blue-emitting), L= 103 ± 7 nm and D= 10.4 ± 0.5 nm from sample 2A; semiconducting CdSe, L= 98 ± 9 nm and D= 10.1 ± 0.7 nm from sample 2A; thermoelectric PbTe, L= 102 ± 10 nm and D = 9.9 ± 0.6 nm from sample 2A; magnetic Fe3O4, L= 203 ± 16 nm and D= 10.2 ± 0.8 nm from sample 3A and L= 916 ± 87 nm and D=10.3 ± 0.5 nm from sample 5A. Insets at the bottom of each panel are HRTEM images showing the crystal lattice of the sample. The upper insets in the middle-left and center panels are digital images of green-emitting NaYF4:Yb/Er and blue-emitting NaYF4:Yb/Tm nanorods, respectively, under near-infrared laser illumination (980 nm at 2 W). The upper insets in the bottom right panel are digital images demonstrating the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanorods as they were deposited on the wall of vial (right) by a magnetic bar. Further details about the samples are given in table S2.

  • Fig. 4 TEM and digital images of Au-Fe3O4 core-shell nanorods and Au nanotubes templated by cellulose-g-(P4VP-b-PtBA-b-PS) and cellulose-g-(PS-b-PAA-b-PS), respectively.

    (A) TEM images of Au-core nanorods (L = 103 ± 7 nm, D = 10.5 ± 0.6 nm). A digital image of Au-core nanorods in toluene (top) and a HRTEM image of a Au nanorod (bottom) are shown as insets. (B) TEM images of Au-Fe3O4 nanorods (Fe3O4 shell thickness t = 4.6 ± 0.4 nm) (sample 2B; table S4). The HRTEM image (bottom left) shows the crystal lattice of the Au core and Fe3O4 shell (white dashed lines for guidance). The bottom right panel shows digital images demonstrating the magnetic properties of Au-Fe3O4 nanorods. (C) TEM images of Au nanotubes at different magnifications (L = 103 ± 12 nm, t = 5.1 ± 0.5 nm, hollow interior D = 5.3 ± 0.4 nm) (sample 2A; table S6). The inset is a digital image of Au nanotubes in toluene

Supplementary Materials

  • 1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures

    Xinchang Pang, Yanjie He, Jaehan Jung, Zhiqun Lin

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs. S1 to S71
    • Tables S1 to S10
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