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Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs

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Science  07 Oct 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 110-114
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8110
  • Fig. 1 Events shown in experiment one.

    (A to F) Familiarization. (G to J) Belief induction for the FB1 (false belief one) condition. (K) Central approach for FB1. (L to O) Belief induction for FB2. (P) Central approach for FB2. (Q) Areas of interest (AOIs) defined for the target and distractor haystacks. See movie S1.

  • Fig. 2 Events shown in experiment two.

    (A to G) Familiarization. (H to M) Belief induction for the FB1 condition. (N) Central reach for FB1. (O to S) Belief induction for FB2. (T) Central reach for FB2. (U) AOIs defined for the target and distractor boxes. Following the infant study (10), we included an additional action in FB1 [KK touched the distractor box (K)] to control for subjects looking to the last place that the actor attended. See movie S2.

  • Fig. 3 Apes’ performance across the two experiments.

    (A) Mean number of first looks to the target and the distractor for the 29 subjects who participated in both experiments. Asterisks indicate P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test. (B) Individual scores in each experiment.

  • Table 1 Number of participants who made first looks to either the target or the distractor during the agent’s approach in experiments one (N = 40) and two (N = 30).

    Values in parentheses indicate the number of participants who did not look at either.

    ConditionTargetDistractorTotal
    Experiment one
    FB110414 (6)
    FB210616 (4)
    Total201030 (10)
    Experiment two
    FB18210 (6)
    FB29312 (2)
    Total17522 (8)

Supplementary Materials

  • Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs

    Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

    Download Supplement
    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs. S1 to S5
    • Tables S1 to S5
    • Captions for Movies S1 and S2
    • References

    Images, Video, and Other Media

    Movie S1
    Video stimuli from Experiment 1, with one participant’s gaze data mapped onto it.
    Movie S2
    Video stimuli from Experiment 2, with one participant’s gaze data mapped onto it.

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