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Exposing the exposures responsible for type 2 diabetes and obesity

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Science  07 Oct 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 69-73
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5094

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  • Why do overweight elderly enjoy longer lifespan than their underweight peers?
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Sun Yat-sen University
    • Other Contributors:
      • Yuan Wang, Researcher, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Beibei Zhao, Ph.D, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    An analysis found that elderly who were overweight by BMI standards (25 to 29.9 range) had lower mortality rates than their peers who were underweight (1). Acetyl coenzyme A is a key intermediate in lipid metabolism, Krebs cycle, etc. Oxalate may be involved in cell senescence and human death (2-3). As acetyl group shares structural similarity with oxalate, it can inhibit the production of oxalate, in a way similar to the role of ethanol and acetic acid in lifespan extension (4-5). The reservoir for acetyl groups is large in the overweight elderly. Acetyl groups functioning in metabolism may be evolutionarily selected in living creatures to counteract the negative role of oxalate. It is worth noting that obesity comes with higher risks for cancer, diabetics, cardiovascular diseases, etc.

    Yuan Wang, 1,2 Beibei Zhao, 1,2 Qiuyun Liu 1,*
    1. Biomedical Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2. Equal contribution.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    REFERENCES
    1. M. M. Corrada, C. H. Kawas, F. Mozaffar, A. Paganini-Hill, Am J Epidemiol 163, 938 (2006).
    2. Y. Gao et al., Science, (2017);...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Hydroxyl groups and aldehyde group of glucose and secondary chemical bonding
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Yanchao Zhou, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Jinhuan Qi, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Li Xu, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    Diabetes disease has a number of manifestations (1-2). The hydroxyl groups and aldehyde group of glucose allow secondary chemical bonding, consequently generating cation affinities including protons. The hydrogen bonding capabilities are associated with increased water intake and urination as well as hypertension in diabetes patients. Affinity to several other cations is related to atherosclerosis due to the formation of insoluble salts, perhaps with organic acids. Food rich in hydrogen bond donors and acceptors or proteins capable of secondary chemical bonding could be a plus to patients with diabetes, such as food of aquatic origin like fish diet. They may help remove excessive glucose molecules or cations in the body.

    Yanchao Zhou, Jinhuan Qi, Li Xu, Qiuyun Liu*
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, The Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    REFERENCES

    1. A. E. Kitabchi, G. E. Umpierrez, J. M. Miles, J. N. Fisher., Diabetes Care 32, 1335 (2008)
    2. H. Park, C. Park, L. Quinn, C. Fritschi., J Adv Nurs 71, 1650 (2015)

    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and delocalized electrons
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Zi-Wei Ye, Writting/Student, School of Biological Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
      • Aravindhan Ganesan, Writting/Professor, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2R3
      • Feng Wang, Writting/Professor, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Vic. 3122, Australia

    Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial to a number of diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses (1-2). They possess hyperconjugated systems with delocalized electrons, consequently generating cation affinities. This feature enables the exclusion of many types of cations from membranes including divalent cations that are prone to form insoluble salts. The proton binding property of omega-3 fatty acids might also help dissolve insoluble salts with organic acids. Omega-3 fatty acids can exclude water molecules and cations accumulated via the secondary bonding capabilities of the 30% or so proline and hydroxyproline in collagens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (3), who often show symptoms in cold and wet conditions.

    Zi-Wei Ye, 2 Aravindhan Ganesan, 3 Feng Wang, 4 Qiuyun Liu, 1*
    1 State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, The Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2 School of Biological Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    3 Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2R3
    4 Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Vic. 3122, Australia

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address:...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.

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