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Localized seismic deformation in the upper mantle revealed by dense seismic arrays

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Science  07 Oct 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 88-92
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1370

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  • Why several megaquakes strike around noon?
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    • Other Contributors:
      • Kaiqiao Yang, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Huan Xu, Student, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China.
      • Wanquan Liu, Researcher, Emergency Management Bureau, Deyang 618000, Sichuan, China.

    Several megaquakes with the magnitude of over 8.5 or 8.0 occurred around noon local time. For instance, the Chilean 9.5-magnitude earthquake happened at 3:00, May 22, 1960 (1-2), the Japan 9.0-magnitude megaquake at 13:46, March 11, 2011 (3), the Alaskan 9.0-magnitude quake at 14:12, November 3, 2002 (4), the Wenchuan 8.0-magnitude quake at 14:28, May 12, 2008, in China (5), the Chile 8.0-magnitude quake at 12:47, April 2, 2014 (6). Nearly all the solar gravitational pulls convert to vertical (upward) components of the strain with maximum values at this time window, which substantially cancel out gravity and accelerate the uplifting of the earth crust before the imminent quakes. This trend is less obvious in minor quakes where strain builds up faster with steeper slopes, resulting in less synchrony in ruptures in a particular region.

    Kaiqiao Yang, 1 Huan Xu, 2 Wanquan Liu, 3 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2School of Electronic Information and Automation, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China.
    3Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Department, Emergency Management Bureau, Deyang 618000, Sichuan, China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail....

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Earth’s self-rotation: high-velocity movements manifested in the solar and lunar gravitational fields
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    • Other Contributors:
      • Huan Xu, Student, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China.
      • Jieyu Wu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    The field of seismology is teeming with ideas and models which need to be interrogated and confirmed. Like automobiles, accidents occur more often in highways with accelerations and decelerations. Earth’s self-rotation is only evident in the solar and lunar gravitational fields (1), and we humans don’t feel a thing. Solar and lunar pulls generate decelerations of large masses and accelerations of small masses, consequently creating earthquakes, volcanoes, deserts, petroleum fields, sand-dust storms, hot springs, etc.(2) They even give rise to water-storing sugar-rich sweetest melons in the dry and hot deserts. Therefore, seismic activities need to be viewed in an interactive manner of the solar system and the Earth’s immense gravity. This is true for sunspots and starspots (3), which can be harnessed to predict orbiting planets in outer space.

    Huan Xu, 2 Jieyu Wu, 1 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2School of Electronic Information and Automation, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. S. Yan, et al. Earthquakes-an intricate trio dance of gravitation. Sci...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Prediction of modest earthquakes via anomaly of rat behavior
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    • Other Contributors:
      • Liang Cui, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Zhenlang Chen, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Jieyu Wu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    According to Chinese observations, specific behavior like the loss of appetite appears in earthquakes with magnitudes about 7.0 or greater.(1) To forecast quakes below 7.0 but still causing substantial damage, animals with VDAC3 channel proteins with 2 basic amino acid polymorphisms can be adopted as they are more sensitive to moderate electromagnetic field.(2) Rattus norvegicus (NP_112645.1), with some reports describing that rats are among the most sensitive with earthquake premonition of about 2 days in advance or earlier, displays no fears to human presence and stares blankly during modest quakes.(3) The oxalate levels in rats can be moderately high on these occasions. As calcium oxalate further builds up when animals are situated in stronger electromagnetic field in quakes greater than 7.0 in magnitudes, rats can be motionless or easily captured.(2-3) The aforementioned behavior may indicate the power of a quake and help discern modest quakes from big quakes. Small quakes may also be forecasted with food supplement of oxalate or calcium oxalate among caged rats.(4)

    Liang Cui, 1,2 Zhenlang Chen, 1,2 Jieyu Wu, 1 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2 Liang Cui and Zhenlang Chen made equal contributions.
    *Corresponding a...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Large-magnitude earthquakes with large-areas showing anomaly of animal behavior
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    • Other Contributors:
      • Zijin Li, student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    Earthquakes were proposed to be triggered by the upward component of the strain, which cancels out gravity completely when earthquake occurs.(1) The vertical component of the strain cancels out gravity nearly simultaneously in a large area with flat-slopes (2-3), giving rise to mega-quakes. Thus the anomaly of animal behavior is more widespread in regions with major quakes than minor quakes. Search engines can assist the prediction of seismic activities by using abnormal animal activities.(4-5)

    Zijin Li, Qiuyun Liu*
    State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan, et al. How focal depth is generated? Science, 2017; http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. W. Chen, et al. The similar upward components of the strain cancel out gravity simultaneously in the extensive flat slope. Science, 2018; http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    3. S. He, et al. Large or small earthquakes: defying gravity. Science,...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • The basis for continually-distributing daily seismic activities
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    • Other Contributors:
      • Kaiqiao Yang, student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Jiali Liu, student, Department of Natural Sciences, University College London

    Seismic activities can be caused by both decelerations of larger-masses or accelerations of smaller-masses in the direction of the Earth’s self-rotation, triggered by solar and lunar pulls.(1) For instance, the local time from 12:00 pm to 23:59 pm is the deceleration phase of the Tibetan plateau. Sichuan basin is to the east of the Tibetan plateau. Just considering solar pulls. The upward component of the force on Sichuan generated by the slower decelerations can sustain after midnight or into dawn by the lagging terrain of the massive Tibetan plateau in the direction of the Earth’s self-rotation. The situation is further compounded by the strong lunar pulls on a fortnightly basis as the gravitational pulls of the trio interact.(2) This scenario accounts for the continual occurrence of the seismic activities on a daily basis.

    Kaiqiao Yang, 1 Jiali Liu, 2 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2Department of Natural Sciences, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Kaiqiao Yang and Jiali Liu made equal contributions.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)
    References:
    1. S. Yan, et al. Volcanoes or earthquakes: Wrist wrestling....

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • The use of search engines in earthquake predictions
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Li Chen, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Ziting Chen, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    The query data in Google online searches (1) can indicate pre-earthquake anomaly of animal behavior, e.g., the loss of appetite, spasm, unable to stand, being captured easily, waterfowls refusing going to water and seabirds flocking inland after filtering non-specific anomalous behavior (2-3). Electromagnetic anomaly such as the noise and discontinuity of radio signals in a region may be revealed in the query data of online searches as well before an impending quake.

    Li Chen, Ziting Chen , Qiuyun Liu*
    School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn; (Q. Liu)

    References
    1. J. Ginsberg et al.,Nature. (2009); 457(7232).
    2. S. Weng et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6308/88/tab-e-letters
    3. Y. Du et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6308/88/tab-e-letters
    Acknowledgement: We thank Wanquan Liu and Bang Xu for discussions.

    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • How is ground shaking generated during earthquakes?
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Li Chen, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Bang Xu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Wanquan Liu, Researcher, Earthquake Prevention and Disaster Reduction Bureau, Deyang, Sichuan, China

    Shaking during earthquakes can be vertical and horizontal. The upward component of the strain cancels out gravity and causes tremor (1-3). The impact at the interface of the strain leads to forward motion of people and buildings. Then upward movement of the crust creates room underground and allows the further movement of the interface, leading to backward shaking of people and buildings. This forward movement also leads to fall of the earth surface, producing vertical shaking when combined with upward motion.

    Bang Xu,1 Li Chen,1 Wanquan Liu,2 Qiuyun Liu1*
    1School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2 Earthquake Prevention and Disaster Reduction Bureau, Deyang 618000, Sichuan,
    China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References
    (1) R. He et al. Science, 2017.
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    (2) Y. Wan et al., Science, (2017).
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    (3) S. Yan et al., Science, (2017).
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters

    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • RE: “Localized seismic deformation in the upper mantle revealed by dense seismic arrays”
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Shaoping Weng, Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Simona Reina, Writting/Postdoctoral, Department of Biomedicine and Biotechnology BIOMETEC, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Catania, Italy
      • Kai Wang, Writting/Student, Division of Life Science, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China
      • Bang Xu, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Zhining Li, Writting/Student, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
      • Zi-Wei Ye, Writting/Student, School of Biological Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
      • Xuelan Zhang, Writting/Student, College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China

    Supplement to earthquake prediction based on Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels

    Mouse VDAC3 proteins (NP_001185927.1, NP_035826.1 ) are referred as standard variants herein, whose basic amino acid content is identical to that of many larger animals who usually have a reported earthquake premonition time of about half a day (1-2). Orthologous proteins with one less basic amino acid are found in Homo sapiens, Pan paniscus, Pongo abelii, and Sarcophilus harrisii. Orthologous VDAC3 with one more basic amino acid than the mouse VDAC protein have been described in Odobenus rosmarus divergens, Monodelphis domestica and Rattus norvegicus (NP_112645.1), with some reports documenting that rats are among the most sensitive with earthquake premonition time of about 2 days or longer (1-2). VDAC3 is considered the oldest isoform of the mitochondrial outer membrane pores (3).

    Markedly increased fish capture may also be a sign of an impending earthquake when water pollution is excluded. The described anomaly of animal behavior based on VDAC activities is very specific after filtering non-specific responses to upcoming earthquakes (4). As one of the key indicators, pre-earthquake animal feeding upon deliberate supply of feedstuffs can be conveniently monitored in set time intervals for on-the-spot fieldwork. Slightly reduced appetite and activities may be encountered at extreme high temperature in summer but may not be universal among animals. Reduced appetite upon infections...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • RE: “Localized seismic deformation in the upper mantle revealed by dense seismic arrays”
    • Qiuyun Liu, Superviser/writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Jianguo He, Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Vito De Pinto, Writting/Professor, Department of Biomedicine and Biotechnology BIOMETEC, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Catania, Italy
      • Yue Du, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Shaoping Weng, Writting/Professor, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, Sun Yat-sen University, China
      • Ye Gao, Writting/Student, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
      • Juntong Zou, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Li Chen, Writting/Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    Earthquake prediction based on Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels

    Earthquake prediction via geophysical approaches remains a major challenge. The myriad of animal manifestations before an impending earthquake suggests that non-specific ion transporters could underlie such phenomena. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 3 (VDAC3) harbors high content of positively charged basic amino acids whose polymorphisms are well correlated to earthquake perceiving capabilities of animals from hours to days prior to earthquakes. In a normal and open state of VDAC, influx and efflux of metabolites, including ADP, ATP, inorganic phosphate, citrate, succinate and other substrates, takes place in the outer mitochondrial membrane (1-2). In a closed state, VDAC1 and VDAC2 do not allow the flow-through of anions via the outer membrane but cations (3). The up- and down-regulation of VDAC’s conductance results in the closure and opening of the channel, which is known as voltage-dependence. Unlike mouse VDAC1 and VDAC2, the mouse VDAC3 channels did not close upon up to 80mV, and the only one channel that showed gating fluctuated very quickly between the closed and open states at high voltages of around 70mV, allowing preferential trafficking of anions (4). The collective work of VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 channels can be the basis to generate insoluble and rigid organic calcium salts (5) and to deplete Ca2+ in the cells in strong electromagnetic field before an impending earthquake, which would ca...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.

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