PerspectiveHIV

Developing an HIV vaccine

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Science  17 Mar 2017:
Vol. 355, Issue 6330, pp. 1129-1130
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0662

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  • The post-exposure prevention of HIV1 can be enhanced by a carbohydrate diet
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Ying Zhang, Researcher, Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China
      • Meng Xing, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    HIV infections can be triggered by exposure to virus-contaminated injection needles, sexual contact, etc. As the integration of HIV to the host genome may take up to 72 hours to occur, antiviral cocktails are essential to prevent viral infections to happen. A carbohydrate/vitamin diet such as a starch diet does not give rise to essential amino acids in the body (1-2), and creates severe bottlenecks in viral reproductions. The regimen can be lasted for about 3 days. This will enhance the effects of post-exposure preventions by antiviral cocktails. Essential amino acids may be critical for many types of viruses to elicit virulence in the hosts (3-6). Clinical trial should be first conducted before the aforementioned strategy finds widespread use.

    Ying Zhang1, Meng Xing2, Qiuyun Liu2*
    1Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China.
    2State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References
    1. R He, et al. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018, 25(7):758.
    2. T Gan, et al. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018. 25(9): 979–980.
    3. J. He et al. Science, (2017);...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • HIV vaccine - combination blows
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Sirui Yan, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Fan Yang, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    One HIV-1 vaccine candidate RV144 recorded limited success in 2009 (1). The quest for a fully effective one is still on. Both humoral immunity and cellular immunity may be essential since HIV-1 primarily infects CD4 T cells and integrates into the genome of the infected cells, and it also produces virions. What’s more, a polyvalent vaccine or vaccine against conserved protein domains may be necessary since the virus mutates at alarming rate.

    Sirui Yan, 1,2 Fan Yang, 1,2 Qiuyun Liu1*
    1State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    2Equal contributions.
    *Corresponding author: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. S. Rerks-Ngarm et al. N Engl J Med 361(23):2209–2220 (2009)

    Acknowledgement: This work was supported by grants from the Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (201804010328); Guangdong Science and Technology Program (2016B020204001) and Open Fund of Laboratory (20160215) at Sun Yat-sen University of China.

    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • RE: Pathogeny Recapitulates Epidemology

    “Developing an HIV vaccine” review by Haynes and Burton is an excellent summary of the present state of HIV vaccine development.
    It unfortunately misses a very promising approach that was historically taken to develop vaccines, such as, the polio vaccine. The Sabin strain (vaccine) differs from the Leon strain (pathogen) by just one nucleotide at position 472. It is a C to U change in a target hairpin structure of 22 nucleotides. The other Sabin strains are mutations into GU base pairs in the same hair pin structure from the pathogenic strain.
    As both HIV and Polio are approximately the same size (10K nucleotides), it is reasonable to look for asymptomatic HIV positive individuals. One would expect 1/500 individuals would be HIV positive but asymptomatic.
    Another characteristic of epidemics was ignored in this excellent review.
    It is the phenomena of pathogenic strains competing out non-pathogenic strains to start an epidemic, while non-pathogenic strains will compete out the pathogenic strains to close an epidemic. This phenomena can be used in treating HIV infected individuals upon the assumption that
    pathogeny recapitulates epidemiology. This should be investigated for treating all epidemics. (1)(2)(3).
    Prof. George Pieczenik

    References:
    1) Scolaro, M., Durham, R., and Pieczenik, G. (1991) “Potential Molecular Competitor for HIV”, The Lancet, Vol 337,p.731
    2) Pieczenik, G. (1994), “The Theory of Genotypic Select...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.

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