Research Article

Complex multifault rupture during the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  14 Apr 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6334, eaam7194
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7194

eLetters is an online forum for ongoing peer review. Submission of eLetters are open to all. eLetters are not edited, proofread, or indexed.  Please read our Terms of Service before submitting your own eLetter.

Compose eLetter

Plain text

  • Plain text
    No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Author Information
First or given name, e.g. 'Peter'.
Your last, or family, name, e.g. 'MacMoody'.
Your email address, e.g. higgs-boson@gmail.com
Your role and/or occupation, e.g. 'Orthopedic Surgeon'.
Your organization or institution (if applicable), e.g. 'Royal Free Hospital'.
Statement of Competing Interests
CAPTCHA

This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.

Image CAPTCHA
Enter the characters shown in the image.

Vertical Tabs

  • A day-by-day, region-by-region comparisons using 60-minute time window can pinpoint pre-quake minute rise
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Xi Luo, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Xiaoyi Hu, Researcher, Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center

    When the upward component of the stress is about to offset the downward gravity, an earthquake is approaching with minute rise of earth surface or seabed (1). The influence of solid earth tides must be filtered. Ground-level or seabed sensors should be installed for data-gathering by satellites. A day-by-day, region-by-region comparisons using 60-minute time window can pinpoint the minute rise in quake-prone places. The integration of aforementioned analysis with other pre-earthquake anomaly can better prepare mankind against the devastating quakes (2-5).

    Xi Luo, 1,3 Xiaoyi Hu, 2,3 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
    3 Equal contributions.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. Y. Du et al., Science, (2017);...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Matters squeezing upward make room at the horizontal level
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Fan Feng, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Hongyu Zhong, Student, Sheffield Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, United Kingdom.

    When the vertical component offsets downward gravity (1-2), matters underneath squeezes upward in an earthquake by the joint actions of vertical component and horizontal component, consequently making room at the horizontal level and relieving the stress.

    Fan Feng, 1,3 Hongyu Zhong, 2,3 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, Sheffield Medical School, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Rd, Sheffield S10 2RX, United Kingdom.
    3 Equal contributions.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. H. Zhong et al., Science, (2017);
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6334/eaam7194/tab-e-letters

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    Support from Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (General project 2018), Gua...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Horizontal and vertical components of the stress
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Wenze Chen, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Xiaoyi Hu, Researcher, Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center

    In the March 11, 2011 Japan 9.0 mega-quake, the Japanese archipelago moved 5 meters eastward, and the seabed in some regions rose more than 3 meters. These phenomena are clear signs of a horizontal and a vertical component of the stress. It reaches a critical point when the upward component offsets downward gravity, then earthquake occurs (1-2).

    Wenze Chen, 1,3Xiaoyi Hu, 2,3 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
    3 Equal contributions.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. H. Zhong et al., Science, (2017);
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6334/eaam7194/tab-e-letters

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    Support from Guangzhou Science and Technology Prog...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Integrated system for earthquake predictions
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Hongyu Zhong, student, Sheffield Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, United Kingdom.
      • Min Fu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Wanquan Liu, Researcher, Earthquake Prevention and Disaster Reduction Bureau, Deyang, Sichuan, China.

    A comprehensive system integrating information from different aspects of pre-earthquake anomaly can be developed. Triggered by the upward component of the stress, the minute rise of seabed or earth surface is a telltale sign of an impending earthquake (1). Atmospheric thermal energy detectable by satellites is caused by crustal extrusion via the joint actions of upward component of the stress and gravity (2). It is apparent when the forces cancel out each other and an earthquake is approaching. The above phenomena are corroborated by anomaly of animal behavior, including loss of appetite, spasm, unable to stand, being captured easily, waterfowls refusing going to water and seabirds flocking inland after filtering non-specific anomalous behavior (3-4). Electromagnetic anomaly may be observed as well before an impending quake.

    Hongyu Zhong, 2,4 Min Fu, 1,4 Wanquan Liu, 3,4 Qiuyun Liu 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, Sheffield Medical School, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Rd, Sheffield S10 2RX, United Kingdom.
    3 Earthquake Prevention and Disaster Reduction Bureau, Deyang 618000, Sichuan,...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • Large or small earthquakes: defying gravity
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Shuying He, Researcher, New York, NY 10016 USA
      • Wenwen Yu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    If the upward component of the stress cancels out gravity over a large region or small region, large or small quake occurs respectively (1). For instance, reservoirs cause small quakes for their small increases of local masses. Modest slope over a wide region tend to spawn large quakes over long time intervals (2-3).

    Shuying He, 2,3 Wenwen Yu, 1,3 Qiuyun Liu, 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 450E 29th St, New York, NY 10016 USA.
    3 Equal contributions.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan et al. Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. Q. Liu et al. Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    3. Q. Bletery et al. Science. 354, 1027 (2016)

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    Manuscript editing by Ms. Yan Shi, and support from Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (General project...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.
  • What accounts for the phenomena of missing ships in the Bermuda Triangle?
    • Qiuyun Liu, Professor, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Sun Yat-sen University
    • Other Contributors:
      • Zijin Li, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
      • Xiaoyi Hu, Lab Technician, Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA
      • Xiang Zhu, Student, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

    The west of the Atlantic ridge forms cracks as heavier masses drift in the direction of the Earth’s self-rotation (1-2). As a result, ocean whirlpool wave is generated occasionally, which account for the phenomena of missing ships in the Bermuda Triangle. The electromagnetic field may also change in the region, where ocean is very deep and water is lower in density than rocks. Earthquakes are frequent in the region as it is encircled by the heavier masses.

    Zijin Li, 1,3 Xiaoyi Hu, 2,3 Xiang Zhu, 1,3 Qiuyun Liu, 1*
    1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, Biomedical Center, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Lab of Microbial Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology, Lab for Earthquake Perception Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
    2 Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York 10032, USA.
    3 Equal contributions.

    *Correspondence author.
    E-mail address: lsslqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn (Q. Liu)

    References:
    1. Y. Wan et al., Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6315/1027/tab-e-letters
    2. Q. Liu et al. Science, (2017); http://science.sciencemag.org/content/3...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.

Navigate This Article