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Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering

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Science  14 Jul 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6347, pp. 202-204
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8138
  • Fig. 1 Choices in experiment 3.

    (A and B) Selections across trials for each subject in the (A) tool condition and (B) bartering condition.

  • Table 1 Overview of the results.

    Values indicate the number of trials in which the functional item was selected or used. The numbers in parentheses indicate the maximum possible number of successes. Each subject’s individual performance in selecting the functional item was significant in all experiments (exact binomial test). N.A., not tested.

    Experiment 1: 15-min delay
    Tool conditionBartering condition
    SubjectSelectedUsedSelectedUsed
    Rickard (male)14 (14)12 (14)36 (36)29 (36)
    Siden (male)N.A.N.A.36 (36)21 (36)
    Juno (female)14 (14)12 (14)36 (36)31 (36)
    None (female)11 (14)8 (11)35 (36)30 (35)
    Embla (female)11 (14)11 (11)N.A.N.A.
    Experiment 2: 17-hour delay
    Tool conditionBartering condition
    SubjectSelectedUsedSelectedUsed
    Rickard (male)6 (6)6 (6)6 (6)6 (6)
    Siden (male)N.A.N.A.6 (6)6 (6)
    Juno (female)5 (6)5 (5)6 (6)5 (6)
    None (female)N.A.N.A.6 (6)6 (6)
    Embla (female)6 (6)5 (6)N.A.N.A.
    Experiment 3: Self-control long delay
    Tool conditionBartering condition
    SubjectSelectedUsedSelectedUsed
    Rickard (male)12 (14)12 (12)12 (14)10 (12)
    Siden (male)N.A.N.A.11 (14)11 (11)
    Juno (female)8 (14)7 (8)11 (14)10 (11)
    None (female)N.A.N.A.7 (14)6 (7)
    Embla (female)11 (14)11 (11)N.A.N.A.
    Experiment 4: Self-control short delay
    Tool conditionBartering condition
    SubjectSelectedUsedSelectedUsed
    Rickard (male)14 (14)14 (14)14 (14)14 (14)
    Siden (male)N.A.N.A.14 (14)14 (14)
    Juno (female)14 (14)14 (14)14 (14)14 (14)
    None (female)N.A.N.A.14 (14)14 (14)
    Embla (female)14 (14)14 (14)N.A.N.A.

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