Research Article

Preventing mussel adhesion using lubricant-infused materials

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Science  18 Aug 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6352, pp. 668-673
DOI: 10.1126/science.aai8977
  • Fig. 1 P. viridis mussel settlement and plaque secretion.

    (A) Multiple-choice assay illustrating the randomized checkerboard arrangement of the various surfaces on which mussels were uniformly placed at time zero (left) and allowed to move and settle for 48 hours (right). (B) Number of adhesive plaques per surface type in each checkerboard. (C) Mean adhesive plaques per slide for each surface type, with bars representing standard error. Significantly different results are labeled with different letters (“A,” “B,” and “C”). (D to F) Examples of live observations of P. viridis surface exploration and thread secretion on PDMS and i-PDMS (see movies S1 to S7). Blue boxes highlight secreted adhesive threads and plaques.

  • Fig. 2 Analysis of P. viridis adhesive footprint by MALDI-TOF and adhesive strength.

    (A) Schematic representation of the experiments. (B) Average adhesive strength on different surfaces. All measurements for i-PDMS were obtained from the only 1 of 15 i-PDMS samples onto which plaques were deposited. Values are mean ± SD. (C) MALDI-TOF spectra of mussel plaque footprints after plaque detachment. The absence or low signal intensity of adhesive proteins (Pvfps) indicate weak nonspecific adsorption and, consequently, effective antifouling activity.

  • Fig. 3 Antifouling performance of i-PDMS, PDMS, and IS900 panels in the field.

    (A) Representative images for the fouling communities associated with each surface type after 8 and 16 weeks of static immersion on 175 mm by 175 mm substrates at Scituate Harbor, MA, USA. Slime: microalgal films; Soft: tunicates, hydroids, and macroalgae; Hard: mussels. (B) Total coverage and composition of the fouling communities.

  • Fig. 4 Nanoscale contact mechanics of LBL, PDMS, i-LBL, and i-PDMS surfaces.

    (A) Characteristic load-displacement curves obtained using a conospherical tip. (B and C) Enlargement of the adhesive force regimes for LBL and i-LBL (B), and for PDMS and i-PDMS (C). Jump-in and jump-off instabilities upon approach and retraction are attributed to capillary bridges of the lubricant. Inset in (B) is an enlargement of the low-displacement region, showing that the lubricant thickness for LBL is about 400 nm. (D and E) Representative indentation curves of lubricant-infused surfaces (D) and corresponding contact regimes (E). Upon approach (“1”), a capillary bridge is formed with equal adhesive force on both soft PDMS and stiff LBL surfaces (“2”), followed by forces arising from the solid material (“3” and “4”). During retraction, an adhesive force retains due to the formation of a capillary bridge (“5”), the length of which is roughly equivalent between the two types of surfaces, indicating that the effect is entirely mediated by the lubricant. (F) Force profile over time during contact on an infused surface, mimicking the force profile “sensed” by mussel feet during surface exploration.

  • Fig. 5 Adhesion mechanics of mussel threads on noninfused (left) and infused (right) surfaces.

    The total adhesion energy Gc is the sum of the thermodynamic work of adhesion wa at the interface (molecular interfacial energy due to the adhesive proteins) and of the viscoelastic dissipative process due to plaque and thread deformation (We). For the noninfused surface, the liquid is water, whereas for the infused surfaces, the liquid is the infused lubricant. The vanguard Pvfp-5 adhesive protein efficiently displaces molecular-bound water on noninfused surfaces (15), whereas residual lubricant may remain at the interface for the infused surfaces, owing to the ultralow interfacial energy between the substrate and the lubricant, leading to partial plaque/substrate contact.

Supplementary Materials

  • Preventing mussel adhesion using lubricant-infused materials

    Shahrouz Amini, Stefan Kolle, Luigi Petrone, Onyemaechi Ahanotu, Steffi Sunny, Clarinda N. Sutanto, Shawn Hoon, Lucas Cohen, James C. Weaver, Joanna Aizenberg, Nicolas Vogel, Ali Miserez

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods 
    • Supplementary Text 
    • Figs. S1 to S11 
    • Tables S1 to S3 
    • References 

    Images, Video, and Other Media

    Movie S1
    Mussel probing and plaque deposition on a non-infused LBL surface, showing the normal behaviour of plaque secretion, with the deposition of four cured threads after 7 min.
    Movie S2
    Mussel probing and plaque deposition on a non-infused PDMS surface. Here two well-cured threads were deposited are 2 min.
    Movie S3
    Mussel probing on an i-LBL surface. Both mussels are observed scrubbing the surface without secreting a thread, as illustrated when one of the mussel is dislodged from the surface at 1mn 50 sec.
    Movie S4
    Mussel probing on an i-PDMS surface, case 1. From the start of the movie until 3 min, the mussel explores the surface underneath its shell and ends up secreting two threads on itself during the exploration.
    Movie S5
    Mussel probing on an i-PDMS surface, case 2. The mussel extends its foot all the way until the extremity of the substrate and then crosses over the next surface at 18 sec without committing.
    Movie S6
    Mussel probing on an i-PDMS surface, case 3. The mussel secreted a viscous gel, which readily disperses in water when the mussel is lifted from the surface. The same mussel deposited normal threads when presented with a non-infused surface.
    Movie S7
    Mussel probing on an i-PDMS surface, case 4. The left-hand side mussel extends its foot towards the surface. Upon reaching the surface (1 min) and scrubbing it for a few seconds (1 min 4 sec), the foot swiftly retracts (1 min 5 sec).

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