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Biological fabrication of cellulose fibers with tailored properties

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Science  15 Sep 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6356, pp. 1118-1122
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5830
  • Fig. 1 Biological incorporation of fluorescent-tagged glucose (6CF-Glc) into cotton fibers.

    (A) A G. hirsutum flower grown under hydroponic conditions. (B) Schematic representation of the development of the in vitro cotton culture model. BT, Beasley-Ting. (C) Sequence of microscopic images taken under “white” illumination and standard conditions (32°C, 5% CO2) at 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20 days. (D) Corresponding sequence of images taken under UV illumination (wavelength, 365 nm). (E) A representative ovule after day 20 of incubation with 6CF-Glc, showing yellow coloration of the fibers. (F) Similar to (E), but under UV illumination (365 nm), showing fluorescent fibers. (G) Binocular image of the fibers under UV illumination (365 nm). (H) CLSM 3D image stack of isolated fibers displaying a fluorescent tubular morphology. (I) High-magnification CLSM image of a fiber, showing fluorescent features in the cytosol. (J) Schematic representation of the transport of 6CF-Glc through the embryo to the outermost layer of the epidermis, uptake and metabolism by the cellulose-producing cells, and integration into the cotton fibers.

  • Fig. 2 Structural characterization of fibers after biological integration of 6CF-Glc.

    (A) Microscopic view of the yellow cotton fibers. (B) WAXS spectra of raw (black) and FGIO (red) fibers, showing induced structural amorphization. (C) DSC of raw (black) and FGIO (red) fibers. FGIO fibers had a lower temperature of crystallization (297°C) than raw fibers (324°C), in agreement with WAXS. (D) FT-IR ATR spectra of raw (black) and FGIO (red) fibers, showing a structural modification. The inset shows detailed spectral differences in the range between 1100 and 1900 cm−1. (E and F) Spectral deconvolution of the infrared spectrum in the OH band region (3000 to 3600 cm−1) for raw (E) and FGIO (F) fibers, showing the FGIO bands shifted toward higher wave numbers and the two new additional bands, reflecting differences between inter- and intrachain H-bond networks. (G) Force-displacement curves of single raw (black) and FGIO (red) fibers obtained during tensile testing. (H) Sequence of images from single-fiber tensile testing probed with a force-puller setup and recorded in situ until fracture (vi). White arrows indicate the direction of the force. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 3 Biological incorporation of a magnetic Dy(III)-based complex into cotton fibers.

    (A) Structure of the Glc-DOTA-Dy(III) complex. (B) Sequence of microscopic images taken at 2, 6, 15, and 20 days under “white” illumination and standard conditions (32°C, 5% CO2). (C and D) Ovules at day 20. The incorporation of Glc-DOTA-Dy(III) does not result in (macro)morphological differences. (E) AFM image from an end-clamped single FiDy fiber, showing a relatively smooth surface. (F) WAXS spectra of raw (black) and FiDy (red) fibers, showing structural amorphization. (G) Sequence of images from tensile testing of FiDy fibers, probed with a force-puller setup and recorded in situ until fracture (iv). White arrows indicate the direction of the force. (H) Temperature versus χmass at 5 kOe for raw (black) and FiDy (red) fibers, showing diamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior below 30 K, respectively. The inset shows magnetization versus magnetic field (H) at 300 K of raw (black) and FiDy (red) fibers that remain unchanged throughout the temperature range. Blue points represent FiDy fibers at 2 K. FiDy exhibits superparamagnetic behavior between –20 and +20 kOe and diamagnetic behavior at 20 kOe < H < –20 kOe. (I) Schematic representation of the biological incorporation of Glc-DOTA-Dy(III) into the cellulose fibers.

Supplementary Materials

  • Biological fabrication of cellulose fibers with tailored properties

    Filipe Natalio, Regina Fuchs, Sidney R. Cohen, Gregory Leitus, Gerhard Fritz-Popovski, Oskar Paris, Michael Kappl, Hans-Jürgen Butt

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S18
    • Table S1
    • References

    Images, Video, and Other Media

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    Correction (17 November 2017): An Editorial Expression of Concern was posted on 14 September 2017, once the editors were informed of errors in the labeling and description of the control experiments described in figs. S1 and S2. In particular, in fig. S1, carmine should have been kermesic acid, and in the caption of fig. S2, carmine should have been carminic acid. After discussions with the authors and minor revisions to the manuscript and supplementary materials, including corrections to a few other minor errors in the text that do not affect the conclusions of the paper, the editors are now confident in the results. The Editorial Expression of Concern has therefore been removed from the PDF of the paper. The paper and supplementary materials have been corrected.
    The original version is accessible here.

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