Research Article

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 early science investigations of regional carbon dioxide fluxes

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Science  13 Oct 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6360, eaam5745
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5745
  • El Niño impact on carbon flux in 2015 relative to 2011, detected from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and OCO-2 data.

    OCO-2 uses reflected sunlight to derive Embedded Image and SIF. This shows OCO-2 Embedded Image data over North America from 12 August 2015 to 26 August 2015.

  • Fig. 1 OCO-2 detects sunlight that has traveled through the atmosphere and is reflected back to space.

    The sunlight is partially absorbed by the O2 A-band (A) and the weak and strong CO2 bands centered near 1.61 (B) and 2.06 μm (C).

  • Fig. 2 Maps of OCO-2 Embedded Image.

    Maps of OCO-2 Embedded Image (bias corrected with quality flags applied) over 32-day periods in (A) March/April 2015, (B) June/July 2015, and (C) March/April 2016. The measurement area of each sounding has been exaggerated for visibility on a global scale.

  • Fig. 3 The OCO-2 SIF retrieval at 757 nm on 1° by 1° grid for the spring (i.e., the mean of April-May-June for 2015 and 2016).

  • Fig. 4 OCO-2 Embedded Image measurements across the Los Angeles basin and into the desert north of Los Angeles taken during one overpass on 8 September 2015.

    The measurement swath is 10 km across. Two special sets of measurements taken for validation purposes—one at the California Institute of Technology and one at the Armstrong Flight Research Center—are also displayed.

  • Fig. 5 Maps of the OCO-2 Embedded Image anomaly (mean in each grid box of the daily anomaly from the regional median) in 1° by 1° cells between September 2014 and April 2016.

    The anomalies are only plotted for the regions identified as clusters of enhancements due to fossil fuel burning in (34).

  • Fig. 6 Maps of OCO-2 Embedded Image over sub-Saharan Africa for the beginning of the biomass burning seasons of 2015 and 2016, showing the rapid regional increase in Embedded Image.

    The data have been averaged to 2° by 2° bins each month, after bias correction and quality screening were applied.

  • Fig. 7 Time series of weekly OCO-2 Embedded Image averages for regions around Hawaii, the Southern Pacific Ocean, and EuroAsia, showing the contrast of the seasonal cycle in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres that is clearly observed by OCO-2.

    The data have bias correction and quality screening applied.

  • The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 early science investigations of regional carbon dioxide fluxes

    A. Eldering, P. O. Wennberg, D. Crisp, D. Schimel, M. R. Gunson, A. Chatterjee, J. Liu, F. M. Schwandner, Y. Sun, C. W. O'Dell, C. Frankenberg, T. Taylor, B. Fisher, G. B. Osterman, D. Wunch, J. Hakkarainen, J. Tamminen, B. Weir

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Movie S1 

    Images, Video, and Other Media

    Movie S1
    Results of the assimilation of OCO-2 XCO2 data into a high-resolution global model for March 2015 through July 2015, highlighting the springtime reduction in atmospheric CO2.

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