High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer

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Science  03 Nov 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6363, pp. 630-632
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5953
  • Fig. 1 All-metallic high-speed modulator.

    Schematic of the operation principle of an all-metallic modulator in a MZI configuration with vertical metallic grating couplers and polarization rotators. A continuous-wave optical carrier is coupled into the device through the vertical metallic grating coupler from one core of the multicore fiber. The polarization of the optical carrier is rotated from p-polarization (p-pol) to s-polarization (s-pol) and split into the arms of the MZI in the polarization rotator section. The electrical information is then encoded by means of a phase shift through the Pockels effect onto the two optical signals in the MZI arms. At the output, the two optical signals from the arms interfere either constructively or destructively, and they are coupled back to another core of the multicore fiber.

  • Fig. 2 Vertical grating coupler and polarization rotator of the all-metallic device.

    (A) False-color scanning electron micrograph of the device fabricated in a single 200-nm-thick layer of gold (colored in yellow) deposited on thermally grown glass layer (dark blue). (B) Magnified image of a vertical metallic grating coupler with staircase gratings. The polarization rotation in the all-metallic device is illustrated by means of the plots of the electric field distributions. (C) A p-polarized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) on the top surface of the device after coupling through the vertical metallic grating coupler. (D) Conversion from p-polarized into s-polarized SPP mode in the polarization rotator section. (E) s-polarized SPP mode coupled into the metallic slot waveguides behind the polarization rotator section. The positions of the cross sections are shown in (A).

  • Fig. 3 Characterization of the all-metallic modulator.

    (A) Optical power transmission spectrum for different bias voltages. (B) Optical power transfer function of the device over the applied voltage. (C) Normalized frequency response of the device.

  • Fig. 4 High-speed data transmission experiment.

    (A) Schematic of the data transmission experiment. (B) The eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of the 72 GBd PAM2 and 58 GBd PAM4 signals corresponding to a 72 Gbit/s and 116 Gbit/s data stream.

Supplementary Materials

  • High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer

    Masafumi Ayata, Yuriy Fedoryshyn, Wolfgang Heni, Benedikt Baeuerle, Arne Josten, Marco Zahner, Ueli Koch, Yannick Salamin, Claudia Hoessbacher, Christian Haffner, Delwin L. Elder, Larry R. Dalton, Juerg Leuthold

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs. S1 to S5
    • Table S1
    • References

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