Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago

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Science  03 Nov 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6363, pp. 652-655
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6266
  • Fig. 1

    (A) Locations of archaeological sites and geographic centers of comparative populations (6). (B) PCA of ancient southern Africans and a global comparative data set. (C) Admixture analysis for selected clusters (K); see fig. S8 for all K values.

  • Fig. 2

    (A) East African/Eurasian admixture proportions (f4 ratio test using Amhara as the reference population) for current-day southern African populations (6). Circles depict San and Khoekhoe populations, and diamonds depict Bantu-language speakers. (B) Runs of homozygosity of the 200 to 500 Kb bin among individuals from various African populations.

  • Fig. 3 Demographic model of African history and estimated divergences.

    (A) Population split times, hierarchy, and population sizes (width along a horizontal axis for populations) (summary of results in figs. S6, S12, S18 to S20, and S24). Horizontal colored lines represent migration, with down-pointing triangles representing admixture into another group. The estimated age of the Florisbad skull (24) is indicated by a dashed line. Stone Age hunter-gatherers are shown by red symbols, and Iron Age farmers as green symbols. (B) Non-Africans (brown), East Africans (blue), West Africans (green), central African hunter-gatherers (light blue), northern Khoe-San (NKSP) (purple), and southern Khoe-San (SKSP) (red) are mapped according to their broad historical distribution. (C) Estimated population split times with the Gronau et al. approach (7) and the TT method described in (13). Divergence-time estimates for human versus Neandertal and non-Africans versus Africans (out-of-Africa event) are given for reference and are consistent with recent estimates (2). NKSP-SKSP split is the estimated split time between Ballito Bay A and Ju|’hoansi.

  • Table 1 Sample information with calibrated dates, genomic and mitochondrial sequence coverage, sex, and mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups [see (13)].

    B.P., before the present.

    date B.P.
    (2 SD)
    DNA coverage
    DNA coverage
    Biological sex
    Ballito Bay A1986–1831*12.941035XYL0d2c1A1b1b2Juvenile
    Ballito Bay B2149–19321.2584XYL0d2a1A1b1b2Male
    Champagne Castle448–2820.36186XXL0d2a1aFemale
    Eland Cave533–45313.237597XXL3e3b1Female

    *Dated by Ribot et al. (15).

    Supplementary Materials

    • Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago

      Carina M. Schlebusch, Helena Malmström, Torsten Günther, Per Sjödin, Alexandra Coutinho, Hanna Edlund, Arielle R. Munters, Mário Vicente, Maryna Steyn, Himla Soodyall, Marlize Lombard, Mattias Jakobsson

      Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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      • Materials and Methods
      • Supplementary Text
      • Figs. S1 to S34
      • Tables S1 to S25
      • References

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