Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers

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Science  03 Nov 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6363, pp. 659-662
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1807
  • Fig. 1 Relatedness among ancient Eurasians.

    Kinship coefficients and R1 ratios (4) were inferred from IBS counts. (A) Pairs of Upper Paleolithic individuals, using 1000 Genomes Phase 3 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. (B) Pairs of ancient Eurasians, using 1240K capture SNP sites. Within-group pairs of Sunghir are highlighted.

  • Fig. 2 Identity by descent and recent effective population sizes.

    (A and B) Distributions of the number and total length of HBD and IBD segments in modern, ancient, and archaic humans (Altai Neandertal and Denisovan). Ellipses indicate 95th percentile (dark gray) and 99th percentile (light gray) of the distributions inferred from simulated data of various NE values. Individuals with previously described close relatedness and their degree are indicated in (B). (C) Distributions of inferred recent effective population sizes for modern and ancient HGs with a minimum of three individuals, as well as simulated data sets of randomly mating populations with a range of NE values. For each population, a pair of symbols and box plots indicates the distributions of population sizes inferred from individual HBD (left) and pairwise IBD tracts (right).

  • Fig. 3 Genetic affinities of the Sunghir individuals.

    (A) Geographic locations of ancient Eurasian individuals used in the analysis. (B) Multidimensional scaling of ancient individuals based on pairwise shared genetic drift [outgroup-f3 statistics f3(Mbuti; Ancient1, Ancient2)]. (C) Admixture graph showing the best fit of Sunghir with other early Eurasians.

  • Fig. 4 Modeling of early Eurasian population history.

    (A and B) Best-fit demographic models for early Eurasian admixture including (A) SIII and (B) Ust’-Ishim. Point estimates are shown in bold (kya, thousands of years ago); 95% confidence intervals are shown within square brackets. Times of divergence in years are obtained assuming a generation time of 29 years and a mutation rate of 1.25 × 10–8 per generation per site. N.R.E., Unsampled “ghost” population related to the Altai Neandertal used to model admixture contributing to Eurasians; N.R.A., Altai Neandertal–related ghost population contributing to ancient modern humans. Divergence of SIII from proto-Europeans was supported in 100 of 100 bootstrap replicates, whereas divergence of Ust’-Ishim from proto-Asians was supported in 99 of 100 bootstrap replicates.

Supplementary Materials

  • Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers

    Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Vitor C. Sousa, Anders Albrechtsen, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Amy Ko, Simon Rasmussen, Isabelle Dupanloup, Philip R. Nigst, Marjolein D. Bosch, Gabriel Renaud, Morten E. Allentoft, AshotMargaryan, Sergey V. Vasilyev, Elizaveta V. Veselovskaya, Svetlana B. Borutskaya, Thibaut Deviese, Dan Comeskey, Tom Higham, Andrea Manica, Robert Foley, David J. Meltzer, Rasmus Nielsen, Laurent Excoffier, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Ludovic Orlando, Eske Willerslev

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs. S1 to S37
    • Tables S1 to S27
    • Captions for tables S28 and S29
    • References
    Table S28
    Outgroup–f3 statistics f3(Mbuti;A,X).
    Table S29
    f4 statistics f4(Mbuti,P2;P3,P4).

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