Giant nonlinear response at a plasmonic nanofocus drives efficient four-wave mixing

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Science  01 Dec 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6367, pp. 1179-1181
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1467
  • Fig. 1 Nanofocusing devices and modal properties of organic HGPWs on silicon.

    (A) Schematic representation. (Top insets) The nanofocusing mechanism with electromagnetic mode distributions with S = 25 nm and M = 40 nm for a narrow gap, W = 25 nm, and a wide gap, W = 500 nm (the W = 500 nm mode has been scaled by ×5 for clarity). (Bottom left inset) The chemical formula for MEH-PPV. (B) Scanning electron microscopy image of a L = 2 µm, W = 25 nm waveguide without cladding depicting the in-/out-coupling gratings. (C) Close-up of the same waveguide.

  • Fig. 2 DFWM spectra.

    (A) Normalized pump/signal spectrum and out-coupled idler spectrum from a L = 2 µm waveguide of W = 25 nm for Embedded Image W. (B) The same spectra (black lines) overlaid by input/output spectra from the NLSE simulations (red lines).

  • Fig. 3 DFWM as a function of combined pump and signal power for a HGPW with W = 25 nm and L = 2 µm.

    (A) Peak idler photon counts as a function of average pump power showing the third-order dependence on the combined pump and signal power. (B) Signal-to-idler conversion efficiency versus peak pump power compared solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for varying waveguide nonlinearity, γ. For this HGPW, the waveguide nonlinearity γ/2.5 = (3.09 + 0.07i) × 104 W–1 m–1.

  • Fig. 4 DFWM conversion efficiencies for a variety of different HGPW devices.

    (A and B) Conversion efficiency versus waveguide length for HGPWs of (A) W = 25 nm at Embedded Image W and (B) W = 50 nm at Embedded Image W. (C and D) Conversion efficiency versus waveguide width for HGPWs of (C) L = 3 µm and (D) L = 5 µm at Embedded Image W. Solid lines show theoretical conversion efficiencies calculated with the NLSE using γ/2.5.

Supplementary Materials

  • Giant nonlinear response at a plasmonic nanofocus drives efficient four-wave mixing

    Michael P. Nielsen, Xingyuan Shi, Paul Dichtl, Stefan A. Maier, Rupert F. Oulton

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    •  Materials and Methods 
    • Supplementary Text 
    • Figs. S1 to S7 
    • References

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