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The earliest modern humans outside Africa

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Science  26 Jan 2018:
Vol. 359, Issue 6374, pp. 456-459
DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8369
  • Fig. 1 The Misliya Cave excavation area at the Upper Terrace of the cave and the stratigraphy.

    (A) The excavation area and the location of the Misliya-1 maxilla (red dot). Squares K9 to K12 are indicated. (B) Map of the Misliya Cave Upper Terrace excavations (1 m2 grid) with denoted excavated squares and showing the location of the human maxilla (Misliya-1). (C) Stratigraphic section of the Upper Terrace, squares K9 to K12. Apart from Unit 2, a Terra Rosa soil intrusion, all units contain EMP finds or assemblages. The present-day dripline roughly separates between highly cemented (Units 1,3,5) and more loosely cemented (Units 4 and 6) sediments. Misliya-1 was retrieved from the upper part of Unit 6.

  • Fig. 2 Various views of the Misliya-1 hemimaxilla and overview of the dating results.

    (A) Lateral, occlusal, and oblique views of the hemimaxilla from Misliya Cave. Left: The virtual reconstruction; all adhering matrix was removed using virtual techniques. The enamel caps of the teeth were removed to show the dentine surfaces (which were analyzed through landmark-based methods); right: the original specimen. (B) Overview of the dating results obtained at Misliya Cave. All ages are given at a 2σ confidence level. Key: (*) The U-series age on dentine and calcitic crust on the maxilla should be considered as a minimum age estimate for Misliya-1; (**) the combined US-ESR age should be regarded as a maximum age estimate for Misliya-1; (***) average TL date based on nine samples of burnt flint obtained from nearby squares (N12, L10; see Fig. 1). Dark gray: Age range for Misliya-1, based on dates obtained from the fossil (U-Th provides the minimum age and combined US-ESR the maximum age), is between 177 ky (=185 – 8 ky) to 194 ky (=174 + 20 ky). Light gray: Age range for the EMP period in the Levant (250 to 140 ky) based on the combination of TL dates obtained for Tabun Cave (13), Hayonim Cave (12), and Misliya Cave (11).

  • Fig. 3 First two principal components (PCs) in shape space and associated warped surfaces at the extremities of the axes.

    Noteworthy shape changes in the warpings are as follows: (A) Maxillary bone. PC1, anterior-posterior position and angle of the zygomatic root. PC2, curvature of the zygomatico-alveolar crest. (B) Upper M2; PC2, relative expansion and height of the hypocone; buccolingual relative size of the EDJ occlusal area to the crown base. On the left side of each of the plots, the landmark configurations used for the respective anatomical unit are represented (landmarks in red, curve semilandmarks and pseudolandmarks on CEJ in blue). Prosthion (pr), orale (ol), zygomaxillare (zm), midpoint of the M2 alveolar socket buccally (m2b) and lingually (m2l); upper region of the zygomaticoalveolar crest (C01); buccal alveolar margin (C02), lingual alveolar margin (C03). Red star, Misliya-1; gray circles, recent modern humans (without labels), Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic modern Homo (with labels); black diamonds, Neandertals; yellow X, early modern humans; violet square, European Early and Middle Pleistocene Homo; burgundy plus sign, African Early and Middle Pleistocene Homo; for the specimen labels, refer to table S7.

  • Fig. 4 First two principal components (PCs) of the crown shape of Misliya-1 M1.

    Misliya-1 is distinct from Neandertals and other Middle Pleistocene hominins and clearly grouped with modern humans. Red star, Misliya-1; gray circles, recent modern humans (without labels), Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic modern Homo (with labels); black diamonds, Neandertals; yellow X, early modern humans; violet square, European Early and Middle Pleistocene Homo; burgundy plus sign, African Early and Middle Pleistocene Homo; blue triangle, Middle Pleistocene Asian specimens; for the specimen labels, refer to table S7.

Supplementary Materials

  • The earliest modern humans outside Africa

    Israel Hershkovitz, Gerhard W. Weber, Rolf Quam, Mathieu Duval, Rainer Grün, Leslie Kinsley, Avner Ayalon, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Helene Valladas, Norbert Mercier, Juan Luis Arsuaga, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Cinzia Fornai, Laura Martín-Francés, Rachel Sarig, Hila May, Viktoria A. Krenn, Viviane Slon, Laura Rodríguez, Rebeca García, Carlos Lorenzo, Jose Miguel Carretero, Amos Frumkin, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Daniella E. Bar-Yosef Mayer, Yaming Cui, Xinzhi Wu, Natan Peled, Iris Groman-Yaroslavski, Lior Weissbrod, Reuven Yeshurun, Alexander Tsatskin, Yossi Zaidner, Mina Weinstein-Evron

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Acknowledgments
    • Figs. S1 to S6
    • Tables S1 to S7
    • References

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