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Feedback regulation of COOLAIR expression controls seed dormancy and flowering time

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Science  01 Jun 2018:
Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 1014-1017
DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7361
  • Fig. 1 FT acts upstream of FLC to regulate seed dormancy.

    (A) Germination of seeds from mother plants subjected to either 22° or 16°C before anthesis. Error bars represent SE (n ≥ 5 biological replicates). (B) Insoluble tannin content in wild-type (Ler), ft-1, flc-21, and ft-1 flc-21 double mutant seeds. Error bars represent SE (n = 5 biological replicates). (C) Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) shows that FLC is required for up-regulation of regulators of tannin synthesis TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (TT12) and TT16 in ft-1. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). *P < 0.05 (difference from wild type).

  • Fig. 2 Maternal temperature experience and FT affect FLC expression in carpels.

    (A) FLC mRNA transcripts in carpel tissue harvested from plants grown at either 16° or 22°C. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). (B) FLC-GUS expression in the stage 12 floral organs of representative Ler and ft-1 flowers. Scale bar, 1 mm. (C) Quantitative measurement of FLC-GUS activity in wild-type and ft-1 isolated carpels at 22°C. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). (D) COOLAIR transcripts in wild-type and ft-1 carpels at 22°C. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). *P < 0.05 (difference from wild type).

  • Fig. 3 Maternal temperature experience affects FLC antisense transcription in fruit tissue.

    (A) FT-GFP ChIP performed across the FLC locus in silique tissues. Data are represented relative to the negative control ACTIN2. Numbers indicate positions of primers used. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). *P < 0.05 (difference from wild type). (B and C) Proximal and distal COOLAIR levels in silique tissues from plants growing at either 16° or 22°C. Error bars represent SE (n = 3 biological replicates). Primers used are indicated by arrows in (A). *P < 0.05 (difference from wild type). (D) COOLAIR:LUC expression imaged in wild-type and ft-1 seedlings, carpels, and developing siliques from 3 to 14 days after pollination (DAP; left to right). Scale bars, 5 mm (seedlings and siliques), 1 mm (carpels). (E) Quantitative analysis of COOLAIR:LUC expression at 22°C in the indicated organs in long days, and the effect of 16-hour days (LD) and 8-hour days (SD) on COOLAIR:LUC expression in Ler seedlings. Data are means ± SE (n ≥ 5 biological replicates). P values were calculated by two-tailed Student t test between genotypes or treatments.

  • Fig. 4 FT affects FLC chromatin state in leaves and siliques.

    (A) ChIP comparing Ler and levels of H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 across the FLC locus in silique and ft-1 leaf tissues. Data are means ± SE (n ≥ 2 biological replicates). (B) The effect of vernalization (V) at 4°C for the indicated number of weeks (W) on distal COOLAIR transcript levels in Ler and ft-1. Data are means ± SE (n = 3 biological replicates). *P < 0.05 (difference from Ler control levels without vernalization). (C) GUS activity from FLC:GUS-expressing Ler and ft-1 plants in seedlings without vernalization (–V) versus 7 days after vernalization for 4 weeks (4W V+7). Data are means ± SE (n = 3 biological replicates). *P < 0.05 (difference from Ler control levels without vernalization). (D) Rosette and cauline leaf numbers at flowering in Ler and ft-1 plants grown at either 22° or 16°C with or without prior vernalization. Data are means ± SE (n ≥ 5 biological replicates). Significant differences in response to vernalization are indicated.

Supplementary Materials

  • Feedback regulation of COOLAIR expression controls seed dormancy and flowering time

    Min Chen and Steven Penfield

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods 
    • Figs. S1 to S3
    • Table S1
    • References 

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