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Numerical ordering of zero in honey bees

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Science  08 Jun 2018:
Vol. 360, Issue 6393, pp. 1124-1126
DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4975
  • Fig. 1 Graphic representation of the method and results of experiments 1 and 2.

    (A and B) Examples of possible stimuli combinations during trials and tests in experiments 1 and 2. (C and D) Performance during the unreinforced testing phases during experiments 1 and 2. Data shown are means ± SEM for both treatment groups. Bees trained to less than are shown in dark blue; bees trained to greater than are shown in turquoise. Stimuli above the columns represent the choices for those stimuli in the data. In experiment 1, in the conflict test evaluating the bees’ concept of zero, data shown for the less-than group (n = 10) are choices for zero, and data shown for the greater-than group (n = 10) are choices for stimuli containing elements. In the transfer test to a higher number, data shown for bees trained to less than are choices for a lower number, and data shown for bees trained to greater than are choices for the higher number of five. In experiment 2 (n = 25), the conflict and transfer tests show the bees’ choices for zero. Dashed black line at 0.5 indicates chance-level performance. Significance from chance-level performance is indicated by ** P ≥ 0.01 and *** P ≥ 0.001. NS, not significant.

  • Fig. 2 Photographic representation of stimuli and results from experiment 3.

    (A) Representation of honey bee spatial vision when viewing stimuli of either zero or one (22). (B) Honey bee performance during experiment 3, testing the behavioral effects of numerical distance of numerosity zero. Data shown are means ± SEM for the choice of the zero stimuli. Dashed black line at 0.5 indicates chance-level performance. Significance from chance-level performance and from other tests is indicated by *P ≥ 0.05 and ***P ≥ 0.001. NS, not significant.

  • Numerical ordering of zero in honey bees

    Scarlett R. Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E. Garcia, Andrew D. Greentree, Adrian G. Dyer

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods 
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs. S1 to S4
    • Table S1
    • References 

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