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A single transcription factor promotes both yield and immunity in rice

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Science  07 Sep 2018:
Vol. 361, Issue 6406, pp. 1026-1028
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7675
  • Fig. 1 Elevated IPA1 levels enhance resistance to M. oryzae.

    (A) The ipa1-1D allele alters plant architecture. ipa1-1D was introduced into Shuhui527. The ipa1-1D line R320ipa1-1D and the R320 control were selected from BC2F8 progeny. Whole plants and panicles are displayed. Scale bars, 5 cm. (B) Yields of R320ipa1-1D and R320 were tested in the presence of high blast disease pressure (blast nursery) or the absence of blast disease (normal field). Field tests were conducted in 2015, 2016, and 2017. Each data set contained three plots. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. (C) Same as for (A), except that ipa1-1D was introduced into Chenghui3203 and R441ipa1-1D and R441 were selected. (D) Same as for (B), except that R441ipa1-1D was tested against R441. In (B) and (D), the percent difference was calculated by comparing with the corresponding control. (E to G) IPA1 overexpression (IPA1-GFP) enhances resistance and RNAi reduces resistance to M. oryzae. Wild-type Nipponbare (NP), IPA1-GFP, and RNAi plants were inoculated with M. oryzae isolate Zhong10-8-14. (E) Photographs of lesions. Scale bar, 1 cm. (F) Lesion lengths (n = 10 lesions). (G) M. oryzae population (n = 3 repeats). Values are means ± SD. Different letters indicate significant differences determined by the Tukey-Kramer test.

  • Fig. 2 M. oryzae infection induces phosphorylation of IPA1 at S163.

    (A) IPA1 RNA and protein levels are not significantly affected by M. oryzae infection. The IPA1 RNA (top) and protein (bottom) levels were assessed at different hpi with M. oryzae. The IPA1 protein level was quantitated and normalized to the heat shock protein (HSP) level; the value at time zero was set as one. Error bars indicate SD. (B) Phosphorylation of IPA1 is induced upon M. oryzae infection. Leaves were collected at different hpi with M. oryzae (top) or after treatment with H2O as a control (middle). Phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated IPA1 proteins were separated on a Phos-tag gel, detected by IPA1 Ab, and quantitated by densitometry, and percentages were calculated (bottom). (C) M. oryzae infection enhances IPA1 phosphorylation at S163. Immunoblots were probed with an Ab specifically recognizing IPA1 phosphorylated at S163 (IPA1163P) after M. oryzae (left) or H2O (right) treatment. IPA1163P protein amounts were quantitated by densitometry and normalized to the HSP level. The value at time zero was set as one.

  • Fig. 3 IPA1(S163D) preferentially binds to the TGGGCC site in the WRKY45 promoter.

    (A) M. oryzae infection induces higher WRKY45 expression in ipa1-1D plants than in wild-type plants. (B) M. oryzae infection represses DEP1 expression. In (A) and (B), RNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. (C) IPA1(S163D), a mimic of IPA1 phosphorylation at S163, changes DNA binding specificity. IPA1(S163D) reduces binding to the GTAC site in the DEP1 promoter (left) and enhances binding to the TGGGCC site in the WRKY45 promoter (right) in EMSAs. GST, glutathione S-transferase; B-DEP1P and B-WRKY45P, biotin-labeled DEP1 and WRKY45 promoters. (D) IPA1(S163D) preferentially binds the WRKY45 TGGGCC site in a ChIP assay. Values are means ± SD (n = 3 repeats) in (A), (B), and (D). Letters indicate significant differences determined by the Tukey-Kramer test. **P < 0.01.

  • Fig. 4 IPA1(S163D) but not IPA1(S163A) overexpression induces WRKY45 expression and enhances resistance to M. oryzae.

    IPA1(S163D) (labeled S163D-OE3 and S163D-OE4), IPA1(S163A) (labeled S163A-OE3 and S163A-OE4), and wild-type (WT) plants were inoculated with M. oryzae. (A) IPA1 RNA levels. (B) Lesion pictures. Scale bar, 1 cm. (C) Lesion lengths. (D) M. oryzae population postinfection. (E) WRKY45 RNA levels. Values are means ± SD. n = 3 repeats in (A), (D), and (E); n = 10 lesions in (C). Different letters indicate significant differences determined by the Tukey-Kramer test.

Supplementary Materials

  • A single transcription factor promotes both yield and immunity in rice

    Jing Wang, Lian Zhou, Hui Shi, Mawsheng Chern, Hong Yu, Hong Yi, Min He, Junjie Yin, Xiaobo Zhu, Yan Li, Weitao Li, Jiali Liu, Jichun Wang, Xiaoqiong Chen, Hai Qing, Yuping Wang, Guifu Liu, Wenming Wang, Ping Li, Xianjun Wu, Lihuang Zhu, Jian-Min Zhou, Pamela C. Ronald, Shigui Li, Jiayang Li, Xuewei Chen

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods 
    • Figs. S1 to S14
    • Table S1
    • References 

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