Review

Challenges for commercializing perovskite solar cells

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Science  21 Sep 2018:
Vol. 361, Issue 6408, eaat8235
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8235

Figures

  • Configurations and application demonstration of PSCs.

    PSCs have been developed in various device configurations, including mesoscopic, planar, triple mesoscopic, and tandem structures. Recently, a 110-m2 perovskite PV system with printable triple mesoscopic PSC modules (3600 cm2 for each) was launched by WonderSolar in China.

    PHOTO: WONDERSOLAR
  • Fig. 1 Chemical elements used in different solar cells, device configurations and efficiencies of PSCs.

    (A) Atom fraction of elements used for different types of solar cells. The major elements for silicon solar cells are denoted by blue squares, PSCs by red circles, and CdTe and CIGS thin-film solar cells by purple triangles. Ni, Sn, Cs, Ba, and Sb elements are labeled in semitransparent color, as they have been used in PSCs but not in the mainstream architectures. Major industrial metals and precious metals are categorized according to Goldschmidt classification (7). (B) Four device configurations of PSCs: mesoscopic structure, planar structure, triple mesoscopic structure, and tandem structure with lower-bandgap subcell. (C) Evolution of the best-reported lab-cell (≤0.1 cm2) efficiencies and large-area (≥1.0 cm2) device efficiencies. Solid symbols represent certified efficiencies; hollow symbols denote uncertified efficiencies.

  • Fig. 2 Summary of operational stability for PSCs with various device architectures.

    Mesoscopic formal structures (n-i-p) with organic (A) and inorganic (B) HTLs. [Reproduced from (61) with permission] (C) Planar formal structure (n-i-p). MPP, maximum power point; J, current density; V, voltage. (D) Mesoscopic inverted structure (p-i-n). [Reproduced from (8) with permission] (E) Planar inverted structure (p-i-n). [Reproduced from (30) with permission] (F to H) Printable triple mesoscopic structure. Relatively stable devices have been reported for all structures by using appropriate charge-transporting materials, perovskite, and electrodes. OC, open circuit; SC, short circuit; FF, fill factor. [Reproduced from (51, 65) with permission]

  • Fig. 3 Strategies to improve the stability of perovskite absorbers.

    (A) Encapsulated PSCs based on 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites exhibit much-reduced degradation under constant AM1.5G illumination and high relative humidity. BA, butylammonium; a.u., arbitrary units. [Reproduced from (67) with permission] (B) Improved stability of PSCs by tuning the dimensionality of the perovskite absorber. [Reproduced from (68) with permission from American Chemical Society] (C) By taking advantage of the hydrophobicity of large cations, the stability of perovskites can be effectively improved by tuning dimensionality. Protecting the interfaces and grain boundaries of perovskites is another way to slow down the degradation.

  • Fig. 4 Perovskite solar modules.

    (A) Rigid perovskite mini-module. [Courtesy of Microquanta Semiconductor] (B) Roll-to-roll processed flexible module. [Courtesy of Solliance Solar Research] (C) Semitransparent module fabricated via an inkjet printing technique. [Courtesy of Saule Technologies] (D) Screen-printed module developed by Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics at HUST. [Reproduced from (51) with permission] (E) Power system with printable triple mesoscopic PSC modules. [Courtesy of WonderSolar]

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