Research Article

Relationship of gender differences in preferences to economic development and gender equality

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Science  19 Oct 2018:
Vol. 362, Issue 6412, eaas9899
DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9899
  • Gender differences in preferences across countries and their association with economic development and gender equality.

    (Left) World map visualizing a summary index of gender differences in all six preferences (risk-taking, patience, altruism, trust, and positive and negative reciprocity). (Right) The relationship between the summary index of gender differences in preferences and (top) log GDP per capita and (bottom) a Gender Equality Index comprising measures of material, social, and political gender equality. The relationships are predicted from local polynomial regressions. Shaded areas indicate 95% confidence intervals.

  • Fig. 1 Analysis of gender differences in preferences in relation to economic development and gender equality.

    (A) Mean country-level gender difference in altruism, trust, positive reciprocity, negative reciprocity, risk-taking, and patience by development level. Countries were sorted into four bins according to their GDP per capita quartile. The symbols + and − in the panel titles indicate the sign of the difference for each preference; + indicates that positive differences correspond to women exhibiting higher levels of the respective preference, whereas − indicates that positive differences correspond to women exhibiting lower levels of the respective preference. (B) Relationship between the aggregate index of gender differences in all six preferences and log GDP per capita. (C and D) Same relationships as in (A) and (B) for the Gender Equality Index. See supplementary materials for country abbreviation key.

  • Fig. 2 Analysis of gender differences in preferences in relation to economic development conditional on gender equality, and vice versa.

    Each panel depicts a partial regression plot. (A) Relationship between the aggregate index of gender differences in preferences and log GDP per capita after residualizing both variables with respect to the Gender Equality Index. (B to F) Relationship between the aggregate index of gender differences in preferences and five indices of gender equality after residualizing all variables with respect to log GDP per capita. Indices of gender equality are (B) the Gender Equality Index, (C) WEF Global Gender Gap Index, (D) UN Gender Equality Index, (E) ratio of female to male labor force participation, and (F) years since women’s suffrage. For corresponding regression evidence, see table S4.

Supplementary Materials

  • Relationship of gender differences in preferences to economic development and gender equality

    Armin Falk and Johannes Hermle

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text 
    • Figs. S1 to S9
    • Tables S1 to S14
    • References 

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